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Total Questions: 386

Question:
How does “green road” construction foster environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive development in the Himalayas?
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Green Roads
 
Green roads refer to roads and transportation infrastructure that are designed, constructed, and maintained with a focus on environmental sustainability, minimizing ecological impact, and promoting biodiversity conservation. These roads aim to integrate ecological principles into their planning, design, construction, and maintenance processes to reduce their carbon footprint, preserve natural habitats, and enhance overall environmental quality. 
 
 
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Green road construction is pivotal for promoting environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive development in the Himalayas, considering its significance as a lifeline in this remote and ecologically sensitive region.

  • Economic and Social Importance: Roads are vital for fostering economic growth and livelihood development in the Himalayas, providing access to remote areas and connecting communities to essential services and markets.
  • Objectives of Green Roads: Green roads prioritize sustainability and aim to minimize environmental impact while promoting biodiversity conservation. They serve as a pathway towards achieving green growth goals in mountainous regions.
  • Environmental Considerations: Green road construction focuses on preventing slope destabilization and minimizing disruption to the fragile mountain ecosystem. Techniques such as Environmental Friendly Road Construction (EFRC) are adopted to minimize vegetation loss and soil erosion.
  • Lessons from Bhutan: Bhutan offers valuable insights into EFRC approaches, emphasizing techniques like the "cut and carry" method over conventional "cut and throw" practices. This approach preserves vegetation cover and protects slopes from erosion.
  • Integrated Planning and Design: Green road design incorporates measures to mitigate environmental impact, including spoil disposal sites, drainage structures, and erosion control measures like crib walls and gabion walls. This integrated approach ensures minimal disruption to the natural environment.
 
Conclusion: 
 
The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

Green road construction in the Himalayas presents an opportunity for environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive development. While initial investments may be higher, the long-term benefits, including reduced maintenance costs, fewer road blockages, and preservation of flora, fauna, and cultural heritage, outweigh the upfront expenses. By embracing green road construction methods, policymakers can pave the way for resilient and sustainable development in the Himalayan region.

 
Other Points to Consider 

Green Highways

 

Previous Year Questions

1. How are the fjords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world? (2023)

2. In what way can floods be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India? (2017)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
Lakshadweep’s culture and society evolved much differently than the rest of India due to its geographical isolation and absence of colonialism. Discuss.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep, India's smallest Union Territory, comprising 36 islands spread over 32 sq km, boasts a unique cultural and societal fabric shaped by its geographical isolation and historical context. In the 16th century, the islands came under the dominion of the Arakkal kingdom of Kannur, Kerala's only Muslim dynasty. The kingdom's control over Lakshadweep was significant, driven by strategic and economic considerations, amid competition with European powers.

 
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The evolution of Lakshadweep's culture and society has been markedly distinct from the rest of India due to several factors

  • Islamic Influence: Unlike other regions where Islam spread primarily through the Mappila community, Lakshadweep's Islamic heritage has deeper roots in its interactions with Arab merchants and sailors. Consequently, the Islam practiced here bears distinct characteristics, reflecting an amalgamation of Malayali, Arab, Tamil, and Kannadiga influences.
  • Matriliny and Societal Structure: One of the defining features of Lakshadweep's society is its tradition of matriliny, where lineage and property are traced through the maternal line. This unique social structure sets it apart from mainstream Indian society and contributes to its cultural richness.
  • Pre-Islamic Influences: Despite its predominantly Islamic character, traces of pre-Islamic Hindu practices are evident in Lakshadweep. Archaeological findings, such as buried idols, and traditional island songs that reference Hindu deities and rituals, suggest the presence of a pre-Islamic Hindu society.
  • Gradual Conversion to Islam: Scholars suggest that the conversion to Islam in Lakshadweep occurred gradually over time, facilitated by regular interactions with Arab traders and travelers navigating the Arabian Sea. This prolonged engagement fostered cultural exchanges and facilitated the assimilation of Islamic beliefs and practices.
  • Inhabited Islands and Lineage: Certain islands, such as Amini, Kalpeni, Andrott, Kavaratti, and Agatti, are among the oldest inhabited ones in Lakshadweep. Families residing here often trace their lineage to converts from Nair and Namboodiri Brahmin communities on the mainland, highlighting the diverse socio-cultural origins of the islanders.
 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

Lakshadweep's cultural and societal landscape stands as a testament to its rich heritage, shaped by centuries of maritime trade, migration, and cultural exchanges. Despite its small size, the archipelago's distinctiveness underscores the importance of recognizing and preserving India's diverse cultural tapestry.

 
Other Points to Consider 

Important Islands of Lakshadweep

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Given the diversities among tribal communities in India, in which specific contexts should they be considered as a single category? (2022)

2. Assess the main administrative issues and socio-cultural problems in the integration process of Indian Princely States. (2021)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss how megacities are tackling air pollution? Highlight the impact of air pollution on economic growth.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Air Pollution
 
Air pollution refers to the presence of harmful or excessive quantities of substances in the air, which can pose risks to human health, the environment, and ecosystems. These substances, known as pollutants, can be natural or man-made and include gases, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and biological molecules. Air pollution can arise from various sources, including industrial activities, transportation, agriculture, energy production, and natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and wildfires.
 
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Air pollution is a global health crisis, causing approximately seven million deaths worldwide each year according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Megacities, facing significant pollution challenges, are implementing various strategies to tackle this issue.

Strategies for Tackling Air Pollution:

  • Clean Transport: Megacities are promoting cleaner and fewer automobiles, encouraging walking, cycling, and improving public transport to reduce vehicular emissions.
  • Industrial Sources: Cities like Delhi are focusing on reducing dust from construction sites and transitioning to cleaner fuels and more efficient techniques to mitigate industrial emissions.
  • Waste Management: Effective waste management is essential to prevent open burning, a significant contributor to air pollution. Regulation and infrastructure improvements are crucial components of city plans against pollution.
  • Clean Energy: Cities worldwide, including those in China, are making strides in lowering pollution levels by transitioning to cleaner energy sources.

Impact of Air Pollution on Economic Growth:

  • GDP Risk: The Reserve Bank of India's Department of Economic and Policy Research (DEPR) reports that up to 4.5% of India's GDP could be at risk by 2030 due to lost labour hours from climate change issues, including extreme heat and humidity.
  • Economic Losses: Studies have shown large inter-state variations in economic losses due to air pollution, with the biggest impacts seen in states with low per-capita GDP such as Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh.
  • Factors Contributing to Losses: Economic losses from air pollution manifest in lower labour productivity, consumer footfall, asset productivity, increased health expenses, welfare losses, and premature mortality.
  • City-Specific Impact: Delhi has been identified as the city with the highest per-capita economic loss due to pollution among major Indian cities, highlighting the severity of the issue.
 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

Addressing air pollution is crucial for economic growth, as it impacts productivity, healthcare costs, and overall welfare. Urgent measures are needed in megacities, where pollution levels are alarmingly high, to mitigate the adverse effects and pave the way for sustainable development.

 
Other Points to Consider 

AQI

Pollution in Northern India

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Describe the key points of the revised Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) recently released by the World Health Organisation (WHO). How are these different from its last update in 2005? What changes in India’s National Clean Air Programme are required to achieve revised standards? (2021)

2. What are the key features of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) initiated by the government of India? (2020)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
 How was hybridisation achieved in mustard? Discuss concerns associated with the crop.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Hybridisation

Hybridisation, the process of crossing genetically dissimilar plant varieties to produce first-generation (F1) offspring with higher yields, is challenging in mustard due to its self-pollinating nature. However, scientists have achieved hybridisation in mustard through genetic modification (GM), specifically with the development of hybrid mustard DMH-11 by the Centre for Genetic Manipulation of Crop Plants (CGMCP) at Delhi University. This hybrid mustard contains two alien genes from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a soil bacteria.

 
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Genetic Modification Process:

  • The first gene, called 'barnase', induces male sterility by impairing pollen production in the mustard plant.
  • The male-sterile plant is then crossed with a fertile parental line containing the second gene, 'barstar', which counteracts the effects of the barnase gene.
  • The resulting F1 progeny exhibits high yield and retains the ability to produce seeds.

Concerns Associated with the Crop:

  • The development and cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops, such as hybrid mustard DMH-11, raise concerns related to the precautionary principle.
  • This principle suggests that in the absence of scientific consensus or adequate information, caution should be exercised when dealing with innovations that could have significant adverse impacts on human health or the environment.
  • Decision-making surrounding GM crops often faces criticism for relying solely on the precautionary principle, which some argue impedes scientific progress or leads to inaction.
 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

In India, the Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC), operating under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), is responsible for evaluating proposals related to the release of GM organisms into the environment. While Bt cotton is the only GM crop currently permitted in India, the cultivation of genetically modified varieties of edible oils and other crops is prevalent in the country. As discussions continue on the safety and implications of GM crops, regulatory bodies like the GEAC play a crucial role in assessing their environmental and human health impacts.

 
Other Points to Consider 

Bt Cotton

Why is the Supreme Court (SC) examining the matter of GM crops?

 

Previous Year Questions

1. What is Integrated Farming System? How is it helpful to small and marginal farmers in India? (2022)

2. How has the emphasis on certain crops brought about changes in cropping patterns in recent past? Elaborate the emphasis on millets production and consumption. (2018)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
India can play a key role with its influence and relations with Russia. Discuss in the context of Ukraine peace formula held during the Davos conference.
 
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about the Davos conference

The Davos conference, officially known as the World Economic Forum (WEF) Annual Meeting, is an annual gathering of global leaders, policymakers, business executives, intellectuals, and other stakeholders from around the world. The primary objective of the Davos conference is to foster dialogue and collaboration on pressing global issues, including economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical challenges. Participants engage in discussions, debates, and workshops aimed at shaping policies and initiatives to address these issues.

 
 
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India's potential role in facilitating peace talks for Ukraine, especially in the context of discussions held during the Davos conference, underscores its diplomatic significance and strategic position. 

  • Influence and Relations: India maintains historically strong ties with Russia, characterized by political cooperation, defense collaboration, and economic partnerships. These ties have deepened over the years, spanning various sectors such as defense, energy, and technology.
  • BRICS Alliance: As a member of the BRICS alliance, which includes Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, India holds a unique position to engage with Russia on multilateral platforms. The BRICS countries collectively represent a significant portion of the global economy and hold diplomatic leverage on various international issues.
  • Mediation Potential: India's neutral stance and diplomatic prowess position it as a potential mediator in resolving conflicts, including the Ukraine crisis. With its reputation for non-alignment and commitment to peaceful resolution of disputes, India can act as a bridge between conflicting parties and facilitate dialogue.
  • Davos Conference: During the Davos conference, the participation of national security advisors from various countries, including India, highlights the international community's interest in finding a peaceful resolution to the Ukraine crisis. India's presence underscores its commitment to global peace and security.
  • Collective Momentum: As emphasized by Swiss foreign minister Ignazio Cassis, bringing Russia to the negotiation table requires collective momentum from numerous countries, including those outside of Europe. India's active involvement and support can contribute to building such momentum and encouraging constructive dialogue.
  • Swiss Initiative: Switzerland's initiative to host discussions on a peace formula for Ukraine demonstrates the international community's recognition of the need for concerted efforts to end the conflict. India's endorsement of these efforts further strengthens the legitimacy of diplomatic initiatives aimed at resolving the crisis.
  • Call for Peace: India's reiterated call for the early restoration of peace in Ukraine underscores its commitment to stability and security in the region. By advocating for peaceful resolution and dialogue, India reaffirms its role as a responsible global actor.

 

Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.
 
India's influence, relations with Russia, participation in multilateral platforms like the BRICS alliance, and diplomatic capabilities position it as a potential facilitator in peace talks for Ukraine. Collaborative efforts involving India, alongside other key stakeholders, can contribute to achieving a sustainable solution to the ongoing crisis.
 
Other Points to Consider 

BRICS alliance

SCO grouping

 
 

Previous Year Questions

1. Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times Discuss. (2020)

2. Critically examine the aims and objectives of SCO. What importance does it hold for India? (2021)

3. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in a profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India’s stand on the latest round of talks on Food security. (2014)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
How important is the India-US trade policy forum conference in terms of increasing service trade with the US?
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about the India-US Trade Policy Forum

The India-US Trade Policy Forum (TPF) is a key mechanism for dialogue and cooperation on trade and investment issues between the two countries.  Established in 2005, the TPF serves as a platform for ministerial-level discussions between India and the United States. It brings together representatives from both governments, including the Minister of Commerce and Industry for India and the United States Trade Representative (USTR).

 
 
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The India-US Trade Policy Forum conference holds significant importance in enhancing service trade between the two countries. 

  • Trade Partnership: The United States is India's largest trade partner, and fostering stronger trade ties with the US is crucial for India's economic growth. The Trade Policy Forum provides a platform to address trade-related issues and explore opportunities for increasing bilateral trade, including in services.
  • Export Opportunities: India relies heavily on US demand for its exports, especially in the services sector. As India's services exports continue to grow, tapping into the US market becomes essential for sustaining this growth trajectory. The Trade Policy Forum helps identify areas of mutual interest and potential collaboration to boost service trade.
  • Counterbalancing China: Amidst geopolitical dynamics, including the US-led Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF), India sees the US as a strategic partner to counterbalance China's influence in the region. Strengthening trade relations through forums like the Trade Policy Forum can further align economic interests and reinforce strategic cooperation.
  • Addressing Trade Tensions: Trade tensions, such as the loss of Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) benefits and trade disputes, need to be addressed through dialogue and negotiation. The Trade Policy Forum serves as a platform to discuss and resolve such issues, ensuring a conducive environment for trade expansion.
  • Totalisation Agreement: India's longstanding demand for a totalisation agreement with the US is another key agenda in the Trade Policy Forum. This agreement would provide social security benefits to Indian professionals working in the US, particularly in the IT sector. Resolving this issue through bilateral discussions can enhance the attractiveness of the US market for Indian professionals.
 
Conclusion: 
 
The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.
 
The India-US Trade Policy Forum conference plays a crucial role in advancing service trade between the two countries. By addressing trade tensions, exploring export opportunities, and negotiating agreements like the totalisation agreement, the forum contributes to strengthening the bilateral trade relationship and fostering mutual economic growth. 
 
Other Points to Consider 

Generalised System of Preferences (GSP)

Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Indian diaspora has scaled new heights in the West. Describe its economic and political benefits for India. (2023)

2. Indian diaspora has a decisive role to play in the politics and economy of America and European Countries’. Comment with examples. (2020)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
The transformation of India’s digital landscape has made education inclusive. Discuss
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Education Sector in India

The education sector in India encompasses a broad range of institutions, policies, and initiatives aimed at providing learning opportunities to its vast and diverse population. The children aged 6 to 14 years and is governed by the Right to Education (RTE) Act, which mandates free and compulsory education for all children in this age group. India boasts one of the largest education systems globally, with over 1.46 million schools and 230 million students enrolled in K-12 education (as of 2023). The country has a vast network of universities and colleges, including over 1100 universities and 43,000 degree colleges.

 
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The profound transformation of India's digital landscape has ushered in an era of inclusive education, leveraging pioneering digital public infrastructure (DPI) experiments that have revolutionized the way essential services are delivered. 

  • India Stack: At the forefront of this digital revolution is the Indian DPI ecosystem, commonly known as the "India Stack." This framework harnesses the power of digital identities, payments, and data exchange to drive economic growth and foster a more equitable digital economy. By providing seamless access to services, India Stack has democratized education, making it more accessible to diverse segments of society.
  • Right to Education: The Right to Education law ensures that every child in India has access to free and compulsory education up to the age of 14 or standard VIII. This legislation has laid the foundation for inclusive education by removing barriers to entry and ensuring that education is not a privilege but a fundamental right for all children.
  • Digital Learning Platforms: The advent of AI-based tutoring programs and digital learning platforms has further democratized education by providing personalized learning experiences to students across geographical and socioeconomic divides. These platforms offer interactive and engaging content that caters to individual learning styles, thus enhancing the accessibility and effectiveness of education.
  • Financial and Digital Inclusion: India's DPIs have the potential to bridge wealth gaps and create a resilient digital economy by empowering small businesses, increasing access to healthcare, and promoting financial and digital inclusion among citizens from less affluent socioeconomic backgrounds. By leveraging digital technologies, individuals and organizations can participate more actively in the digital economy, thereby fostering economic empowerment and social inclusion.
  • Rise of Smartphone Usage: The proliferation of smartphones, particularly in rural areas, has played a pivotal role in democratizing access to education. According to the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) 2023, nearly 89% of 14-18-year-olds surveyed across the country had access to smartphones at home, highlighting the widespread adoption of digital technologies in education.
 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

India's journey towards inclusive education is fueled by the transformative power of digital technologies and pioneering DPI initiatives like the India Stack. While significant progress has been made in expanding access to education, there is still a need to focus on improving learning outcomes and addressing the digital divide. By leveraging digital innovations and fostering collaboration between stakeholders, India can continue to advance towards its goal of providing quality education for all.

 
 
Other Points to Consider 

National Achievement Survey (NAS)

National Education Policy

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Examine the uniqueness of tribal knowledge systems when compared with mainstream knowledge and cultural systems. (2021)

2. Discuss the main objectives of Population Education and point out the measures to achieve them in India in detail. (2021)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:

Discuss how western disturbances affect weather patterns in India.

 

Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Western Disturbances
 

Western disturbances are weather phenomena that originate over the Mediterranean Sea region and often impact weather patterns in India, particularly in the northwestern regions, during the winter months. 

 
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  • Origin and Characteristics: Western disturbances are large-scale storm systems that develop over the Mediterranean Sea and move eastwards, carrying moisture from distant regions like the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. As they traverse over landmasses like Afghanistan and Iran, they gather moisture and bring rain or snowfall to northwestern parts of India.
  • Precipitation: These disturbances are the primary source of rainfall and snowfall over north and northwest India during the post-monsoon and winter seasons. They play a crucial role in bringing much-needed precipitation to the Himalayan region, contributing to the winter snowfall in areas like Jammu Kashmir and Ladakh.
  • Contribution to Annual Rainfall: Western disturbances rank as the third major contributor to India's annual rainfall, following the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon. Their occurrence is essential for maintaining the ecological balance and supporting agricultural activities in the affected regions.
  • Trends and Impact: In recent years, there has been a noticeable decline in the frequency and intensity of Western disturbances. This decline has led to irregular precipitation patterns and adverse effects on agriculture and water resources in regions dependent on winter rainfall and snowfall.

Recent Examples:

  • Regions like Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, which typically experience significant snowfall during winter, have reported dry conditions and minimal precipitation. This deviation from the norm has impacted agricultural activities and water availability in these areas.
  • Metropolitan cities like Mumbai have experienced unusually hot January temperatures, indicating deviations from typical weather patterns attributed to the reduced influence of western disturbances.
 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

Western disturbances play a crucial role in India's weather patterns, particularly during the winter months. The decline in their frequency and intensity underscores the importance of understanding and monitoring these weather phenomena to mitigate their impact on agriculture, water resources, and overall environmental sustainability. Efforts to study and predict western disturbances are essential for effective climate adaptation strategies and ensuring resilience to changing weather patterns in affected regions.

 
Other Points to Consider 

South-west monsoon and the North-east monsoon.

 

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Why is the South-West Monsoon called ‘Purvaiya’ (easterly) in Bhojpur Region? How has this directional seasonal wind system influenced the cultured ethos of the region? (2023)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
What is ‘Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana’? Discuss why expansion of solar energy is important for India.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana

The 'Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana' is a scheme aimed at installing solar power systems on rooftops for residential consumers in India. By reducing electricity bills for both the poor and middle class, the scheme aligns with India's objective of achieving self-reliance in the energy sector.

 
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India's Solar Energy Capacity:

India has made significant strides in solar energy, with an installed capacity of approximately 73.31 GW of solar power as of December 2023. However, rooftop solar capacity remains relatively modest, estimated at around 11.08 GW by December 2023. States like Rajasthan and Gujarat lead in total solar capacity, while Gujarat and Maharashtra top the list in rooftop solar capacity.

Importance of Solar Energy Expansion:

Expanding solar energy is crucial for India due to its rapidly increasing energy demand, projected to be the highest globally in the next three decades. To meet this demand sustainably, India needs reliable and clean energy sources beyond traditional coal plants. Therefore, the country aims to achieve 500 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2030, emphasizing the importance of solar energy expansion.

Rooftop Solar Programme:

The Rooftop Solar Programme, launched in 2014, aims to boost rooftop solar capacity in the residential sector by providing financial assistance and incentives to distribution companies (DISCOMs). The programme's target is to increase rooftop solar capacity to 40 GW by March 2026, with ongoing efforts in its second phase.

 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

In addition to reducing electricity bills for consumers, surplus solar power generated from rooftop installations can be exported to the grid, providing monetary benefits to consumers. As India continues to focus on expanding solar energy capacity, initiatives like the Pradhan Mantri Suryodaya Yojana play a pivotal role in achieving the country's renewable energy goals and fostering sustainability in the energy sector.

 
Other Points to Consider 

Other Renewable Energy

International Solar Alliance (ISA)

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Explain the purpose of the Green Grid Initiative launched at World Leaders Summit of the COP26 UN Climate Change Conference in Glasgow in November, 2021. When was this idea first floated in the International Solar Alliance (ISA)? (2021)

2. Describe the major outcomes of the 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). What are the commitments made by India in this conference? (2021)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
How does Artificial intelligence (AI) help in health sector. Give examples in support of your answer.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is revolutionizing the healthcare sector, providing innovative solutions for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Mumbai’s Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH), India’s premier cancer hospital, exemplifies this trend by leveraging AI to enhance cancer detection through its 'Bio-Imaging Bank.' This tailored algorithm aids in early-stage cancer identification, showcasing the transformative potential of AI in healthcare.

 
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AI's Impact on Healthcare:

AI, powered by machine learning and big data analytics, is reshaping the healthcare landscape by reducing costs and improving outcomes. It enhances clinical diagnosis, disease detection, and treatment efficacy, transforming traditional healthcare practices into more patient-centric approaches.

Examples:

Transplant Surgery Without Blood Transfusion: Before transplant surgery, AI evaluates blood coagulation factors to ensure optimal conditions for surgery. By monitoring blood thinners and coagulation effects in real-time during surgery, AI technology facilitates safe surgeries without the need for blood transfusions.
 
Early Cancer Detection: AI plays a crucial role in early cancer detection by analyzing radiological and pathological images to identify cancerous traits. Through machine learning algorithms trained on extensive datasets, AI detects tissue changes indicative of malignancies, enabling early intervention and improved patient outcomes.
 
Tumour Picture Bank at TMH: TMH utilizes AI to create a tumour picture bank, annotating and categorizing images based on biopsy results, histology, and genetic sequences. These algorithms aid in treatment response assessment, guiding personalized treatment plans and minimizing unnecessary chemotherapy.
 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.
 
Artificial intelligence is revolutionizing the healthcare sector, enhancing diagnosis, treatment, and patient care. Through innovative applications like TMH's 'Bio-Imaging Bank,' AI empowers healthcare professionals to make more informed decisions, leading to better outcomes and improved patient experiences. As AI continues to evolve, its potential to transform healthcare delivery and improve population health outcomes remains promising.
 
 
Other Points to Consider 

Can AI help reduce cancer fatalities in the future?

Bio-Imaging Bank

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does AI help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of AI in healthcare? (2023)

2. What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in health sector? (2020)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the role and responsibilities of the Lok Sabha Speaker in ensuring the seamless functioning of the House.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Lok Sabha Speaker

The Speaker of the Lok Sabha holds a pivotal role in the functioning of India's parliamentary democracy. Tasked with embodying the authority and dignity of the House, the Speaker's Office represents the collective power and integrity of the parliamentary system. According to constitutional provisions outlined in Article 93 for Lok Sabha and Article 178 for state assemblies, the Speaker is elected by the members of the respective House, symbolizing the essence of parliamentary sovereignty.

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Role of the Speaker:

Within the House

The Speaker is guided by the constitutional framework and the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business in Lok Sabha. Assisted by the Secretary-General and senior officers of the Secretariat, the Speaker oversees parliamentary activities, ensuring adherence to established practices and procedures. In the absence of the Speaker, the Deputy Speaker assumes responsibilities, with a member from the Panel of Chairmen presiding over proceedings when both are unavailable.

Regulating the Business of the House

The Speaker wields significant authority in regulating the House's proceedings. Empowered to interpret parliamentary rules, the Speaker decides on matters such as allowing amendments to bills and determining speaking time for members. As the guardian of the House's rights and privileges, the Speaker refers questions of privilege to the Committee of Privileges for examination and resolution. Additionally, the Speaker certifies Money Bills, oversees the publication of House proceedings, and presides over joint sittings in the event of legislative disagreements between Houses.

 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

In India's parliamentary democracy, the Office of the Speaker serves as a dynamic institution, addressing the multifaceted demands of Parliament. As the primary spokesperson of the House, the Speaker shoulders the responsibility of upholding parliamentary decorum and facilitating effective legislative processes. Through judicious exercise of authority and impartiality, the Speaker contributes to the robust functioning of India's democratic institutions, ensuring the representation and dignity of the people's elected representatives.

 

Other Points to Consider 

Role of Chairman of Rajya Sabha

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Once a Speaker, Always a Speaker’! Do you think this practice should be adopted to impart objectivity to the office of the Speaker of Lok Sabha? What could be its implications for the robust functioning of parliamentary business in India? (2020)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
What is the India-Myanmar border Free Movement Regime (FMR)? What was the rationale behind the implementation of FMR agreement?
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about the India-Myanmar Border Free Movement Regime

The India-Myanmar border Free Movement Regime (FMR) is a bilateral agreement between India and Myanmar, implemented in 2018 as part of India's Act East policy. Under this arrangement, tribes residing along the border on either side are allowed to travel up to 16 kilometres inside the other country without the need for a visa.

 
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The implementation of the Free Movement Regime was motivated by several factors:

  1. Historical Border Demarcation: The border between India and Myanmar, demarcated by the British in 1826, divided people of the same ethnicity and culture into two nations without their consent. This arrangement disrupted the natural flow of people and separated communities with strong ethnic and familial ties across the border.
  2. Cultural and Ethnic Connections: Communities residing along the India-Myanmar border share strong ethnic and familial links. For example, in Manipur's Moreh area and Nagaland's Mon district, the border divides communities and families, causing inconvenience and disruption to their way of life.
  3. Economic Opportunities: The FMR aimed to boost local trade and business by facilitating easier movement of people across the border. The region has a history of cross-border trade, and people residing near the border often find it more convenient to access Indian towns for business, education, and healthcare services.
 
Conclusion: 
 
 The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

 

Despite the benefits of the Free Movement Regime, challenges persist, such as issues related to illegal migration and border security. The Union Home Minister has announced plans to fence the entire length of the India-Myanmar border to address concerns about unauthorized movement. Nevertheless, the FMR remains a significant step towards fostering closer ties between India and Myanmar and promoting economic and cultural exchanges between border communities. The unfenced 1,643 km border passing through states like Manipur, Mizoram, Assam, Nagaland, and Arunachal Pradesh continues to be a focal point for both nations as they work towards addressing mutual concerns and enhancing cooperation along their shared border.

 
Other Points to Consider 
 
Kuki-Chin people
India and Myanmar relations
States sharing boundaries with Myanmar
Geographical features

 

Previous Year Questions

1. “India’s relations with Israel have, of late, acquired a depth and diversity, which cannot be rolled back.” Discuss. (2018)

2. China is using its economic relations and positive trade surplus as tools to develop potential military power status in Asia’. In the light of this statement, discuss its impact on India as her neighbour. (2017)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
Why does India celebrate Republic Day on January 26? How did India observe its first Republic Day?
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Republic Day

India celebrates Republic Day on January 26 to commemorate the day when the Indian Constitution came into effect in 1950. This date holds historical significance as it marks the culmination of India's struggle for complete independence from British rule. Despite the Constitution being adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, January 26 was chosen as the Republic Day to honour the declaration of "Poorna Swaraj" (complete self-rule) made on January 26, 1930, during the Indian National Congress session in Lahore.

 

 
Body:
 
It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content.
 

India's first Republic Day on January 26, 1950, marked the transition of the country from a British dominion to a sovereign republic. Despite gaining independence on August 15, 1947, India remained under the authority of the British Crown until the Constitution came into effect. On January 26, 1950, the Indian Constitution replaced the Government of India Act of 1935 as the supreme law of the land. Dr Rajendra Prasad assumed office as the first President of India, replacing the British monarch as the ceremonial head of state.

To commemorate this historic occasion, a grand military parade was held in New Delhi, continuing the tradition of displaying sovereign power and prestige, which was previously associated with royal parades during the British Raj. The parade, held at the Irwin Amphitheatre opposite the Purana Qila (now known as the Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium), was inspected by President Dr. Rajendra Prasad, with President Sukarno of Indonesia as the esteemed chief guest. This parade marked the beginning of a longstanding tradition of Republic Day celebrations characterized by the grandeur and magnificence of the military parade in the nation's capital.

 

Conclusion: 
 
The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

Republic Day holds immense significance in India's history, symbolizing the country's transition to a sovereign republic and the culmination of its struggle for independence. By commemorating this day with elaborate ceremonies and military parades, India reaffirms its commitment to democratic values, constitutional principles, and national unity. The observance of Republic Day serves as a reminder of the sacrifices made by the freedom fighters and the enduring spirit of the Indian people in their quest for liberty and self-governance.

 

Other Points to Consider 
 
75th Republic Day
Lahore Session of the INC
Declaration of Poorna Swaraj

 

Previous Year Questions

1. To what extent did the role of the moderates prepare a base for the wider freedom movement? Comment. (2021)

2. What were the major political, economic and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India? (2014)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
How did the Indian National Army (INA) help India to gain independence—but not on the battlefield?
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Indian National Army

The Indian National Army (INA) was established on February 17, 1942, just two days after the British surrendered to Japanese forces in Singapore. Initially composed of Indian prisoners of war (PoWs) captured by the Japanese during their Southeast Asia campaign, the INA was seen by the Japanese as a potential instrument for advancing their own goals of taking control of India.

 

Body:
 
It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content.
  • Despite its origins, the INA's most significant impact on India's independence struggle did not occur on the battlefield.
  • When Subhas Chandra Bose assumed command of the INA in July 1943, he embarked on a strategic mission to rally support for the cause of Indian independence. Bose leveraged his leadership to engage with the Indian diaspora in Japanese-occupied Southeast Asia, garnering both material resources and human support for the INA's objectives.
  • Under Bose's leadership, the INA quickly expanded to encompass more than 40,000 members, with many Indians contributing their life savings to the cause.
  • Bose's vision extended beyond mere military conquest; he aimed for a large-scale insurrection within India to complement the INA's offensive efforts. His strategic goal was to create a dual-front attack on the British government, believing that this would lead to its collapse and the eventual liberation of India.
  • However, the INA's military campaign faced significant challenges, including supply shortages, enemy air superiority, and disease. Despite initial advances, the INA was ultimately forced into retreat, particularly after its unsuccessful attempts to capture Imphal and Kohima.
  • By 1945, with the British launching their own campaign to retake Burma, the INA found itself in a precarious position, further exacerbated by Japan's surrender following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Bose's desire to remain with his troops for the surrender was overruled by his subordinates, marking the end of the INA's military campaign.
 
Conclusion: 
 
The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

While the INA's military campaign did not achieve its intended objectives on the battlefield, its significance lay in its ability to galvanize support for India's independence struggle. Through his leadership and strategic vision, Subhas Chandra Bose transformed the INA into a symbol of resistance and mobilized the Indian diaspora towards the cause of liberation, leaving an indelible mark on India's path to independence.

 

Other Points to Consider 

Red Fort trials

Regiments of INA

 
 

Previous Year Questions

1. It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years but for the experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935. Discuss. (2015)

2. Highlight the difference in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom. (2016)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:

The PSLV Orbital Experimental Module-3 has successfully achieved all its objectives. Discuss.

 

Introduction:

A simple introduction about PSLV Orbital Experimental Module-3 

The PSLV Orbital Experimental Module-3 (POEM-3), an innovative low-cost space platform based on the spent PS4 stage of the PSLV-C58 vehicle, has successfully achieved all its objectives.

After deploying the XPoSat satellite into its intended 650 km orbit on January 1, 2024, the vehicle was manoeuvred to a lower 350 km circular orbit to minimize orbit degradation once the experiment concluded.

POEM-3 is a three-axis attitude-controlled platform equipped with power generation, telecommand, and telemetry capabilities to support various payloads.

 

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

POEM-3 carried nine payloads from diverse entities such as the VSSC, PRL, academia, and space start-ups inducted through IN-SPACe. These payloads include:

  • The Women Engineered Satellite (WESAT) was developed by the LBS Institute of Technology for Women to study the comparison between solar irradiance and UV index.
  • A radiation shielding experiment.
  • An amateur radio.
  • Three propulsion systems by space start-ups, and an interplanetary dust count experiment by the Physical Research Laboratory.
  • Two types of fuel cell systems developed by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre. One of the fuel cells utilizes hydrogen and oxygen to generate electricity while releasing heat and water as by-products, serving as a precursor for energy systems required for a space station.

 

Conclusion:

Your Conclusion should be simple and balanced

Having accomplished all its objectives, further tests with POEM-3 are planned to generate data for future missions, including forthcoming POEM configurations. With POEM-3's expected orbital decay and return in three months, the PSLV-C58 XPoSat mission will leave no debris in space.

India's aspirations of setting up a space station in low Earth orbit by 2035 align with the successful demonstration of POEM-3, showcasing the country's growing capabilities in space technology and exploration.

 

Other Points to Consider 

ARKA200 (Xenon Based Electric Propulsion)
RUDRA (HAN-based Green Propellant Thruster)
Other space missions of ISRO

 

Previous Year Questions

1. What is the main task of India’s third moon mission which could not be achieved in its earlier mission? List the countries that have achieved this task. Introduce the subsystems in the spacecraft launched and explain the role of the Virtual Launch Control Centre’ at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre which contributed to the successful launch from Sriharikota. (2023)

2. Launched on 25th December 2021, James Webb Space Telescope has been much in the news since then. What are its unique features which make it superior to its predecessor Space Telescopes? What are the key goals of this mission? What potential benefits does it hold for the human race? (2022)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:

What are melanistic tigers and what makes tigers melanistic? How setting up a melanistic tiger safari near Similipal Tiger Reserve (STR) will boost tourism?

 

Introduction:

 A Simple Introduction about Melanistic Tigers

Melanism is a genetic condition characterized by increased melanin production, resulting in black or nearly black skin, feathers, or hair in animals. In the Similipal Tiger Reserve (STR), there exists a unique lineage of royal Bengal tigers with higher-than-normal levels of melanin, giving them black and yellow interspersed stripes on their coats, though they are more accurately described as pseudo-melanistic.

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

What makes tigers melanistic?

  • Researchers at the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS) in Bengaluru have identified a single mutation in the gene Transmembrane Aminopeptidase Q (Taqpep) responsible for the unique appearance of melanistic tigers in Similipal. This mutation causes the black tigers to develop stripes that appear broader or spread into the tawny background.
  • Genetic analysis and computer simulations suggest that the pseudo-melanistic tigers in Similipal are inbred and descended from a small founding population of tigers. These tigers live in isolation within the STR, leading to inbreeding among themselves.

Setting up a melanistic tiger safari near Similipal Tiger Reserve (STR):

  • The STR is the only place where melanistic tigers have been recorded in Odisha. According to the 2022 All India Tiger Estimation, 16 individuals were recorded in STR, with 10 being melanistic.
  • Susanta Nanda, Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (Wildlife), Odisha, has identified approximately 200 hectares of land along the Dhanbad-Balasore National Highway-18 for the proposed safari. This area is about 15 kilometres from STR and offers a scenery similar to Simlipal.
  • The safari aims to allow wildlife conservationists, researchers, and enthusiasts to observe the rare melanistic tigers up close, raising awareness about the need for their conservation.
  • Since tiger sightings in STR can be challenging due to its vast area, the safari is proposed as an additional attraction for visitors to Similipal.

Conclusion:

Your conclusion should be simple and balanced

In addition to the identification of suitable land for the safari, the state government will need to obtain various statutory clearances, including approval from the Central Zoo Authority. The proposed melanistic tiger safari near Similipal Tiger Reserve holds promise for boosting tourism while contributing to the conservation efforts of these unique big cats.

 

Other Points to Consider 

Tiger Reserves in India

NTCA

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Comment on the National Wetland Conservation Programme initiated by the Government of India and name a few India’s wetlands of international importance included in the Ramsar Sites. (2023)

2. How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation of flora and fauna? (2018)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:

How the suspension of financing for the United Nations agency for Palestinian refugees would affect Palestinians in Gaza?

 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction.

UNRWA represents UN Help and Works Organization for Palestinian Evacuees in the Close to East. It was established in 1949 to give help to around 700,000 Palestinians who had to leave their homes in the thing is presently Israel during the 1948 Middle Easterner Israeli conflict.
The UN office works in Gaza and the Israeli-involved West Bank, as well as Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan, where displaced people looked for security following their removal.
As per the UNRWA site, it gives schooling, wellbeing, help and social administrations, microfinance, and crisis help both inside and outside evacuee camps in the previously mentioned regions.
 
 

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

UNRWA operates across the Middle East, providing essential services in Gaza, the West Bank, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. These services include:

  • Education: UNRWA schools educate hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugee children.
  • Healthcare: The agency operates clinics and provides primary healthcare services.
  • Relief and Social Services: UNRWA offers assistance to refugees facing poverty, food insecurity, and displacement.
  • Microfinance: UNRWA supports small businesses through microfinance programs.
  • Emergency Aid: The agency provides emergency assistance during times of conflict and natural disasters.

Funding Challenges and Allegations

UNRWA relies heavily on voluntary contributions from donor countries. Recent funding shortfalls have threatened the continuation of these vital services.

Furthermore, UNRWA has faced accusations from Israel regarding its neutrality. Israel has alleged that Hamas, a Palestinian militant group, uses UNRWA facilities and that the agency curriculum incites hatred towards Israel. UNRWA strongly denies these allegations.

 

Conclusion: 

 Your Conclusion should be simple and balanced

Despite the challenges, UNRWA remains a lifeline for millions of Palestinian refugees. In Gaza, where the agency provides food, water, and shelter to a large portion of the population, a lack of UNRWA funding would have devastating consequences.

The ongoing work of UNRWA is critical for the well-being and development of Palestinian refugees.

 

Other Points to Consider 

What is UNRWA?

Places in News (Israel, Gaza, Syria)

 

Previous Year Questions

1. The USA is facing an existential threat in the form of China, that is much more challenging than the erstwhile Soviet Union.” Explain. (2021)

2. Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) is transforming itself into a trade bloc from a military alliance, in present times Discuss. (2019)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the major outcomes of the All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) 2021–22.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A simple introduction about AISHE

The All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) is an initiative of the Government of India aimed at collecting comprehensive data on various aspects of higher education in the country. It is conducted annually to provide insights into the state of higher education institutions, student enrollment, infrastructure, faculty, and other relevant parameters.

 

Body:
 
You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:
 
The outcomes of the All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) 2021–22 paint a comprehensive picture of the landscape of higher education in India, showcasing notable trends and shifts in enrollment patterns, gender parity, discipline preferences, institutional choices, and graduation demographics.
  • Female Enrollment: There has been a significant surge in the enrollment of women in higher education institutes, indicating a positive trend towards gender inclusivity. Notably, the enrollment of women in PhD programs has witnessed a remarkable increase over the years, indicating a narrowing gender gap in academic pursuits.
  • Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) and Gender Parity: The GER, representing the participation rate of students in higher education, is a crucial metric for assessing educational accessibility. States like Chandigarh, Puducherry, Delhi, and Tamil Nadu exhibit commendable GER figures, reflecting robust educational infrastructures. The Gender Parity Index (GPI) also highlights strides towards gender equality, with a GPI greater than 1 indicating a favorable environment for female education.
  • Preference for Arts and Social Sciences: The dominance of Arts and Social Sciences disciplines in both undergraduate and postgraduate enrollments underscores the enduring relevance and popularity of these fields among students. This preference reflects the diverse academic interests and career aspirations of the student populace.
  • Primacy of Government Institutions: Despite the proliferation of private universities, government educational institutions continue to attract a significant share of student enrollments. This preference may stem from factors such as perceived quality, affordability, and infrastructure facilities offered by government-run institutions.
  • Demographics of Graduating Students: The substantial number of students estimated to have graduated across various academic programs signifies the ongoing expansion and diversification of the higher education sector. This indicates a growing pool of skilled professionals entering the workforce, contributing to national development.
 
 
Conclusion:
Your conclusion should be simple and balanced
 
The findings of AISHE 2021–22 offer valuable insights into the dynamics of higher education in India, highlighting progress towards inclusivity, academic diversity, and institutional preferences. Additionally, the report underscores the importance of continued efforts to enhance educational accessibility, quality, and equity across the country.
 
 
Other Points to Consider 
 
All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) 2021–22
NEP
Gross Enrollment Ratio

 

Previous Year Questions

1. The crucial aspect of development process has been the inadequate attention paid to Human Resource Development in India. Suggest measures that can address this inadequacy. (2023)

2. Besides the welfare schemes, India needs deft management of inflation and unemployment to serve the poor and the underprivileged sections of the society. Discuss. (2022)

 

(mains ) 05-Apr 2024
Question:
How would river interlinking projects assist in solving the water crisis? Mention some examples
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) has been entrusted with the ambitious task of river interlinking as outlined in the National Perspective Plan (NPP). The NPP is delineated into two key components: the Himalayan Rivers Development Component and the Peninsular Rivers Development Component. This introduction sets the stage for a comprehensive exploration of the benefits and ongoing initiatives associated with river interlinking projects under the NPP

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

The interlinking of rivers under the National Perspective Plan holds immense promise for various sectors and regions across the country. Some of the anticipated benefits of these projects include: (i) Enhanced irrigation potential covering approximately 35 million hectares of land. (ii) Improved flood control measures to mitigate the impact of floods in flood-prone regions. (iii) Facilitation of navigation along interconnected waterways, fostering efficient transportation. (iv) Augmented water supply for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. (v) Promotion of fisheries by creating conducive habitats and enhancing aquatic ecosystems. (vi) Mitigation of salinity intrusion, particularly in coastal areas, to safeguard agricultural lands. (vii) Implementation of measures to control water pollution, preserving water quality for various uses.

Furthermore, several states have submitted proposals for intra-state river linking projects to the NWDA. Notable examples include Maharashtra, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Chhattisgarh.

Additionally, the Ken Betwa Link Project (KBLP) stands as the pioneering initiative under the NPP, with its implementation already underway. This project aims to create a link between the Ken and Betwa rivers, facilitating water transfer between these basins.

Moreover, recent collaborations between states and the Union Ministry of Jal Shakti signify significant strides in river interlinking efforts. For instance, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to implement the Modified Parbati-Kalisindh-Chambal-ERCP (Modified PKC-ERCP) Link Project. This project aims to integrate the long-pending PKC river link project with the Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project, aligning with the overarching goals of the national perspective plan.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

In conclusion, the National Water Development Agency (NWDA) has been instrumental in advancing river interlinking projects as outlined in the National Perspective Plan (NPP). Through preliminary feasibility assessments and collaborative efforts with various states, significant progress has been made towards realizing the envisioned benefits of these projects. As exemplified by initiatives such as the Ken Betwa Link Project and collaborations between states, the interlinking of rivers holds the promise of addressing water-related challenges and fostering sustainable development across diverse regions of the country

 

Other Points to Consider 

Mahanadi (Manibhadra) – Godavari (Dowlaiswaram) link

Godavari (Inchampalli) – Krishna (Pulichintala) link

Pennar (Somasila) – Cauvery (Grand Anicut) link

Par-Tapi-Narmada link

 

 

Previous Year Questions

The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problems of droughts, floods, and interrupted navigation. Critically examine. (2020)

How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India? (2020)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:

How did the post of deputy Chief Minister emerge and what powers it carries? Discuss

 

Introduction:

A Simple Introduction about Post of Deputy Chief Minister

Article 163(1) of the Constitution specifies the formation of a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at its helm to assist and advise the Governor in carrying out official functions.

However, neither Article 163 nor Article 164(1) explicitly mentions the position of Deputy Chief Minister. Despite this, the role of Deputy CM is commonly perceived as being equivalent in status to that of a Cabinet Minister within the state government framework. Consequently, the Deputy CM is entitled to the same salary, benefits, and privileges as a Cabinet Minister.

 

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

The emergence of the post of Deputy Chief Minister (CM) in India reflects the dynamics of coalition politics and the need for effective governance structures within state administrations.At least 13 other states in the country apart from Bihar currently have Deputy CMs. The highest of these is in Andhra Pradesh, with Chief Minister Y S Jagan Mohan Reddy having five Deputies.

Brief History

  • Bihar: Anugrah Narayan Sinha, a prominent leader, was the first Deputy CM in India. His appointment marked the beginning of recognizing a second-in-command position within state governments.
  • Uttar Pradesh: Leaders like Ram Prakash Gupta played crucial roles as Deputy CMs in coalition governments, contributing to the functioning and stability of the state administration.
  • Madhya Pradesh: Instances such as Virendra Kumar Saklecha's tenure as Deputy CM showcased the evolving nature of power-sharing arrangements and leadership structures within states.

Role and Powers

  • Portfolio Allocation: A Deputy CM is typically assigned specific portfolios similar to other cabinet ministers. These portfolios can range from agriculture, sports, and youth affairs to woman and child development, among others.
  • Financial Powers: The Deputy CM holds financial powers equivalent to other cabinet ministers and does not enjoy specific financial authority beyond their designated role.
  • Political Significance: The appointment of a Deputy CM often signifies political compromises, especially in coalition governments or when no single leader commands absolute authority within the ruling party.

Challenges and Opportunities:

  • Effective Governance: The role of Deputy CMs is crucial in ensuring smooth governance and coordination within the state cabinet, contributing to policy implementation and administration.
  • Portfolio Allocation: While Deputy CMs may not have direct financial powers, their influence in key portfolios can significantly impact policy decisions and government initiatives.
  • Political Dynamics: The significance of the Deputy CM's role may vary depending on the political landscape, coalition dynamics, and the trust and authority vested in them by the Chief Minister and party leadership.

 

Conclusion:

Your Conclusion Should be Simple and Balanced

The evolution of the post of Deputy Chief Minister reflects the adaptability of Indian political structures to accommodate diverse interests and ensure effective governance. While the position does not carry distinct financial powers, it plays a vital role in administrative functioning, policy formulation, and political stability within state governments, particularly in coalition scenarios.

 

Other Points to Consider 

Deputy Prime Minister

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Discuss the role of Presiding Officers of state legislatures in maintaining order and impartiality in conducting legislative work and in facilitating best democratic practices. (2023)

2. Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. (2022)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
The rise in female labour force participation rate has been accompanied by a rise in the share of self-employment and agriculture among working women. Discuss.
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The dynamics of female labor force participation in India have witnessed significant transformations, particularly in rural regions, as highlighted in the 'Indian Economy — A Review' by the Department of Economic Affairs in 2024. This review underscores a notable upsurge in the female labor force participation rate (FLFPR) over the past six years, with rural areas experiencing a remarkable surge. Alongside this surge, there has been a parallel increase in self-employment and engagement in agricultural activities among rural women, signaling a shift in traditional labor patterns. This introduction sets the stage for exploring the multifaceted initiatives and programs driving these changes and their implications for women's economic empowerment in India

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content.

In discussing the topic, consider the following points:

The 'Indian Economy — A Review' by the Department of Economic Affairs in 2024 underscores the notable increase in the female labor force participation rate (FLFPR) in rural India over the past six years.

According to the report, while urban FLFPR has been on the rise, the surge in rural FLFPR has been particularly significant. This growth in rural female FLFPR has paralleled a rise in self-employment and agricultural activities among working women, both of which warrant further examination.

In rural areas, the FLFPR has surged from 24.6% in 2017-18 to 41.5% in 2022-23, whereas in urban areas, it has climbed from 20.4% to 25.4% during the same period.

Approximately 9.96 crore women across the country are covered by the mission, with over 90 lakh Women’s Self-Help Groups (SHGs) under the DAY-NRLM accessing Rs 38,892 crore as capitalization support.

Evaluation studies conducted by the Institute of Rural Management, Anand (2018) under Pramod Kumar Singh and the Stanford University team under Anjini Kochar (2020) affirmed nearly a 20% increase in household incomes for those covered by the mission, along with a maturation period of 6-8 years for newly formed SHGs.

In 2016, the MGNREGS began adopting a 60:40 unskilled labor to material ratio at the district level and promoted individual beneficiary income-generating initiatives like animal barns, agricultural ponds, and vermicomposting.

The Pradhan Mantri Gramin Awas Yojana, which is predominantly in the woman’s name in over 70% of cases, has resulted in more women gaining employment in MGNREGS through the ninety days of labor it provides.

Despite the majority of agricultural land being owned by men, women's contributions in farming are significant, with women tending to more than half of the land. The Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) initiated under the DAY-NRLM in 2011 aims to enhance skill sets through Community Resource Persons like Krishi Sakhi and Pashu Sakhi.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

MGNREGS ensures equal wages for men and women, with its wage rates serving as the benchmark in numerous states. Elevating MGNREGS wage rates, coupled with increased productivity, can serve as an effective means to uphold the dignity of the poor and elevate their skill levels.

The DAY-NRLM and MGNREGS play pivotal roles in augmenting the female labor force participation rate, underlining their significance in advancing economic empowerment and inclusivity

Other Points to Consider

DAY-NRLM

MGNREGS

Deendayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU-GKY)

 

 

Previous Year Questions

How does Indian society maintain continuity in traditional social values? Enumerate the changes taking place in it. (2021)

Women’s movement in India has not addressed the issues of women of lower social strata.’ Substantiate your view. (2018)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is geospatial intelligence? How will geospatial solutions address national priorities and SDGs?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

Geospatial intelligence involves gathering and amalgamating data from diverse technological sources such as satellites, mobile sensors, ground control stations, and aerial photography. This data is utilized to create real-time maps and simulations, aiding in forecasting threats in terms of their location, timing, and magnitude. Stakeholders ranging from individuals to government officials utilize this information to make informed decisions.

Body:

 It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Various initiatives, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and National Developmental Priorities, address the integration of geospatial data into research and operational endeavors. The National Programme on Spatial Disaster Risk Reduction (SDRR) exemplifies this approach, encompassing initiatives such as Landslide Hazard Mitigation (LHM) and Coastal Hazard, Risk Assessment and Reduction (CHRAR). LHM focuses on developing early warning systems for landslides in vulnerable regions like Sikkim, Nilgiris, Manikaran, and Uttarakhand. CHRAR, on the other hand, employs geospatial techniques to study coastal disasters, including erosion, tsunamis, cyclones, and floods, aiming to produce actionable outputs for relief efforts.

In urban governance, geospatial solutions play a crucial role, with emphasis on emerging technologies like Geo-ICT. Projects under this domain focus on areas such as IoT and GIS technologies, smart parking management systems, flood mapping frameworks, and indoor navigation systems, contributing to the development of smart cities.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

The recent signing of the Indo-US Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) underscores the importance of geospatial intelligence in national security. This agreement enables India to leverage US geospatial intelligence, enhancing the accuracy of automated systems and weapons like missiles and armed drones. Access to topographical and aeronautical data through BECA will significantly bolster India's capabilities in navigation and targeting, marking a significant advancement in defense collaboration between the two nations

 

Other Points to Consider

Geospatial Technology Programme

Geospatial Science Programme

 

 

Previous Year Questions

What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in health sector? (2020)

With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy? (2018)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:

The ferry service between India and Sri Lanka has resumed after a 40-year hiatus. Discuss the potential and challenges.

 

Introduction:

A Simple Introduction about India Sri Lanka Relations

India and Sri Lanka have a longstanding history of cultural, religious, and economic ties, dating back over 2,500 years. Recent years have seen significant efforts to strengthen bilateral relations through developmental aid initiatives and people-to-people exchanges.

The resumption of the ferry service between Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu and Kankesanthurai in Jaffna, Northern Sri Lanka, marks the revival of an age-old maritime link between the two nations.

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

The resumption of the ferry service between India and Sri Lanka after a 40-year hiatus holds significant potential but also poses certain challenges.

Ferry Service Potential

  • Bolstering Bilateral Ties: The initiative aims to strengthen the historical and cultural ties between India and Sri Lanka, fostering closer relations at the people-to-people level.
  • Boosting Tourism: The ferry service has the potential to enhance tourism by providing convenient access to religious and cultural sites in both countries. This can attract travelers interested in religious tourism, benefiting local traders and economies along the route.
  • Enhancing Trade: The renewed ferry service can facilitate increased regional commerce and trade, promoting economic activities and exchanges between the two nations.
  • Infrastructure Development: Anticipating the surge in travelers, infrastructure development in key locations such as ports and tourism hubs is expected, which can have long-term economic benefits.

Challenges

  • Frequency and Operations: The initial plan for daily services has been revised to operate thrice a week, which may impact the convenience and attractiveness of the service, especially for regular travelers.
  • Ticketing and Pricing: The high ticket prices during certain seasons, like the northeast monsoon, can deter potential passengers. Improved ticketing systems and competitive pricing are necessary for sustained passenger interest.
  • Infrastructure Readiness: Ensuring seamless operations requires coordination among various government departments such as Customs, Immigration, and Shipping. Infrastructure upgrades must align with the anticipated increase in passenger and cargo traffic.

 

Conclusion:

Your Conclusion should be simple and Balanced

The revival of the India-Sri Lanka ferry service signifies a positive step towards enhancing regional connectivity and fostering closer ties between the two nations. Addressing operational challenges and ensuring affordability and convenience for passengers will be crucial for the sustained success of the ferry service. It is an opportunity not only for tourism and trade but also for reinforcing historical and cultural bonds in the Indian Ocean region.

 

Other Points to Consider 

Other developments between India and Sri Lanka

Palk Strait

 

Previous Year Questions

1. India is an age-old friend of Sri Lanka.’ Discuss India’s role in the recent crisis in Sri Lanka in the light of the preceding statement. (2022)

2. Indian Diaspora has an important role to play in South East Asian countries economy and society. Appraise the role of Indian Diaspora in South-East Asia in this context. (2017)

 

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is Micro Irrigation, and what are its benefits? Discuss the government’s efforts related to micro irrigation.
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

Micro Irrigation represents a holistic approach aimed at boosting crop productivity by enhancing water utilization efficiency through Micro Irrigation Systems.

It involves the gradual delivery of small drips, minute streams, or miniature sprays of water either above or below the soil surface.

Micro irrigation systems are adept at conserving water and improving water utilization efficiency compared to conventional surface irrigation methods.

Benefits

(i) Decreases water consumption

(ii) Suppresses the growth of undesirable vegetation (weeds)

(iii) Applicable across diverse types of terrain

(iv) Suited for undulating landscapes

(v) Enhances crop yield and reduces labor expenses

(vi) Diminishes the need for fertilizers while enhancing soil fertility.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Government Initiatives

Per Drop More Crop (PDMC) scheme

This initiative, spearheaded by the Department of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare, is a central government endeavor promoting micro-irrigation systems like drip or sprinkler systems.

Initiated in 2006, it was subsequently absorbed into the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sichai Yojna (PMKSY) in 2015, forming one of its integral components.

Financing is divided, with the central government contributing approximately 40 percent, and the remainder financed by states and farmers themselves, with varying proportions in hilly and northeastern states.

The scheme primarily aims to augment water-use efficiency and bolster productivity, thereby augmenting farmer incomes.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)

This scheme, undertaken by the Government of India, endeavors to enhance water utilization efficiency in agriculture by advocating suitable technological interventions.

Micro Irrigation Fund

This initiative is committed to facilitating agricultural irrigation access by prioritizing water conservation and management.

It offers several advantages such as increased subsidies on micro irrigation systems, complimentary service for three years post-installation of micro irrigation systems, and heightened water utilization efficiency.

States can access the fund in the form of a loan from NABARD (National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development) at a 3 percent lower cost of funds, with the central government compensating the remaining 3 percent

 

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

Micro Irrigation, bolstered by government initiatives like the Per Drop More Crop (PDMC) scheme and the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY), emerges as a pivotal tool in enhancing agricultural productivity while conserving water resources. Through the effective implementation of micro irrigation systems, farmers can achieve higher crop yields, reduce water consumption, and mitigate the growth of unwanted vegetation. Moreover, initiatives such as the Micro Irrigation Fund further incentivize the adoption of these systems by providing financial assistance and promoting water conservation practices. By leveraging micro irrigation technologies and government support, India can progress towards sustainable agriculture, ensuring food security, and bolstering the livelihoods of farmers nationwide

 

Other Points to Consider

Sprinkler and Drip Irrigation

Challenges in implementation

 

 

Previous Year Questions

How and to what extent would micro-irrigation help in solving India’s water crisis? (2021)

Suggest measures to improve water storage and irrigation system to make its judicious use under depleting scenario. (2020)

What is Integrated Farming System? How is it helpful to small and marginal farmers in India? (2022)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is Multidimensional poverty in India? How Indian Multidimensional Poverty Index is different from global Multidimensional Poverty Index?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

Poverty has conventionally been assessed using income or, when income data is unavailable, expenditure levels. These "poverty lines" represent expenditure thresholds considered low enough to classify individuals as poor.

Multidimensional poverty in India saw a decline from 29.17% in 2013-14 to 11.28% in 2022-23, resulting in approximately 24.82 crore people lifting themselves out of poverty during this period.

At the state level, Uttar Pradesh led the rankings with 5.94 crore individuals rising above the poverty line, followed by Bihar at 3.77 crore and Madhya Pradesh at 2.30 crore.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Difference between Indian MPI and Global MPI

Internationally, the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) encompasses 10 indicators across three key domains: (i) health, (ii) education, and (iii) standard of living. Each of these dimensions contributes equally to the final index.

Health indicators in the MPI encompass child and adolescent mortality rates, while educational metrics include years of schooling and attendance. Standard of living considerations involve household-specific factors such as housing quality, possession of household assets, type of cooking fuel, access to sanitation facilities, availability of drinking water, and electricity.

The Indian MPI includes two additional indicators:

(i) Maternal health (within the health dimension) and

(ii) Access to bank accounts (within the standard of living dimension).

This adaptation, as per the NITI Aayog, aims to align the MPI with India's national development priorities.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

Consequently, the MPI value for a specific population represents the proportion of weighted deprivations experienced by multidimensionally poor individuals relative to the total population

 

Other Points to Consider

What is the basis for this assessment?

How is MPI calculated?

 

 Previous Year Questions

COVID-19 pandemic accelerated class inequalities and poverty in India. Comment. (2020)

Despite implementation of various programmes for eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing’. Explain by giving reasons. (2018)

An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from the process of deprivation.” Substantiate this statement with suitable examples. (2016)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the benefits and downsides of holding simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A simple introduction about One Nation One Election
 
India's electoral system currently follows a decentralized approach where elections for the Lok Sabha and state assemblies are held separately based on different schedules. The idea of One Nation, One Election aims to align these elections, reducing the frequency of polls and promoting administrative efficiency. "One Nation, One Election" is a proposed electoral reform in India that advocates synchronizing the Lok Sabha (parliamentary) elections with the elections for state legislative assemblies.
 
Body:
You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Simultaneous elections for the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies have been a topic of discussion in Indian politics for various reasons.

Advantages:

  • Cost Reduction: Conducting elections at different times for state assemblies and the Lok Sabha incurs significant expenses. Simultaneous elections would help reduce the overall cost of holding elections, including expenses related to campaigning, security, and logistics.
  • Efficient Governance: With simultaneous elections, the government machinery can focus on governance and policy implementation rather than being frequently engaged in election-related activities. This leads to better efficiency and continuity in governance.
  • Policy Continuity: Since elections at both levels would be synchronized, there would be greater policy continuity. This ensures that development initiatives and welfare schemes continue without disruption, benefiting citizens across the nation.
  • Reduced Polarization: Frequent elections can sometimes lead to polarized campaigns based on short-term considerations. Simultaneous elections might reduce the frequency of such polarizing campaigns and encourage a more holistic approach to governance.

Disadvantages:

  • Logistical Challenges: Conducting simultaneous elections requires extensive logistical arrangements, including a large number of electronic voting machines (EVMs) and personnel. Managing such a massive electoral exercise simultaneously across the country can pose logistical challenges.
  • Dominance of National Parties: Simultaneous elections might benefit nationally dominant parties at the expense of regional parties. Regional issues and concerns may get overshadowed by national agendas, potentially marginalizing regional voices.
  • Delayed Results: Holding elections simultaneously means that the results for both Lok Sabha and state assemblies would be announced together. This could delay the formation of governments and decision-making processes, especially if there are hung assemblies.
  • Impact on Regional Issues: Regional parties often focus on local or state-specific issues during elections. Simultaneous polls might restrict their ability to highlight these issues effectively, leading to a dilution of regional concerns in the national discourse.

Previous Efforts and Recommendations:

  • Election Commission and Law Commission: Both the Election Commission and Law Commission of India have explored the idea of simultaneous elections in various reports. They have highlighted the potential benefits while also acknowledging the logistical and political challenges involved.
  • Niti Aayog's Proposal: In 2017, Niti Aayog proposed a roadmap for implementing simultaneous elections, emphasizing the need for consensus-building among political parties and stakeholders. The proposal aimed to address the complexities involved in transitioning to such a system.
 
Conclusion: 
 Your Conclusion should be simple and balanced 
 
While simultaneous elections offer advantages such as cost reduction and policy continuity, they also come with logistical, political, and representational challenges. Implementing such a significant electoral reform would require careful planning, consensus-building, and a thorough assessment of its long-term implications on India's democratic process.
 
 
 
Other Points to Consider 

Has the idea of simultaneous polls been explored before?

What are the arguments around holding simultaneous elections?

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Discuss the role of the Election Commission of India in the light of the evolution of the Model Code of Conduct. (2022)

2. In the light of recent controversy regarding the use of Electronic Voting Machine (EVM), what are the challenges before the Election Commission of India to ensure the trustworthiness of elections in India? (2018)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is the credit system carried out by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)? What changes has the CBSE subcommittee proposed?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The concept of creditisation aims to establish parity in academic recognition between vocational and general education, fostering seamless transition between these two educational streams, as outlined in the NEP 2020.

In 2022, the University Grants Commission, responsible for overseeing higher education, devised the National Credit Framework (NCrF) to operationalize this initiative.

The NCrF serves as a unified credit system aimed at integrating vocational training and skill development into both school and higher education.

Students' earned credits will be digitally recorded in the Academic Bank of Credits, accessible through a linked Digilocker account.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Changes proposed by CBSE subcommittee

Currently, the standard school curriculum lacks a formalized credit structure. Under the CBSE plan, an academic year would comprise 1,200 notional learning hours, equivalent to earning 40 credits.

These hours encompass both in-school academic learning and extracurricular or experiential learning outside the classroom.

To implement this, the curriculum has been modified to specify teaching hours and credits earned for each subject.

The committee suggests incorporating multidisciplinary and vocational courses into the existing disciplines. Thus, students in Classes 9 and 10 would need to complete ten subjects—three languages and seven core disciplines—to pass final exams.

At least two of the three mandatory languages must be Indian, such as a combination of Hindi, Sanskrit, and English.

For Classes 11 and 12, students are advised to study six subjects, including two languages and four optional subjects, with an additional fifth choice. At least one of the two languages must be Indian.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), the largest national school board in the country, is proposing significant revisions to the academic structure of Classes 9 to 12, aligning with the creditisation strategy advocated by the 2020 National Education Policy (NEP)

 

Other Points to Consider 

National Education Policy

Credit system

National Credit Framework

 

Previous Year Questions

 

Examine the uniqueness of tribal knowledge systems when compared with mainstream knowledge and cultural systems. (2021)

Discuss the main objectives of Population Education and point out the measures to achieve them in India in detail. (2021)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
The Indian healthcare system has triumphed over obstacles that seemed insurmountable. Discuss the outcomes of the National Health Accounts Estimates for India: 2019-20.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple introudction about India's Healthcare System
 
India's healthcare system is a vast and diverse ecosystem that serves a population of over 1.3 billion people. It encompasses a mix of public and private healthcare providers, along with traditional and modern medicine practices. The outcomes of the National Health Accounts Estimates for India: 2019-20 reflect significant progress and achievements within the Indian healthcare system, highlighting the resilience in overcoming once-deemed insurmountable obstacles.
 
 
Body:
You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:
 
Government Expenditure on Healthcare
  • The government's investment in healthcare has witnessed a steady rise, demonstrated by an increase in healthcare spending as a percentage of GDP. From FY 2015 to FY 2020, government spending on healthcare rose from 1.13% to 1.35% of GDP, showcasing a commitment to strengthening the healthcare infrastructure and services.
  • Reduction in Out-of-Pocket Expenditure (OOPE): There has been a notable decrease in out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) by individuals on healthcare services. The proportion of total healthcare spending sourced directly from individuals' pockets dropped significantly from 62.6% in FY 2015 to 47.1% in FY 2020. This reduction alleviates financial burdens on citizens and contributes to improved accessibility to healthcare services.
  • Emphasis on Primary Healthcare Sector: A substantial portion of government healthcare expenditure has been allocated to the primary healthcare sector, indicating a strategic focus on foundational healthcare services. In FY 2020, 55.9% of government healthcare spending targeted primary care, emphasizing preventive measures, basic medical services, and community health initiatives.
  • Increase in Social Security Expenditure: The government has demonstrated an increased commitment to social security in the healthcare domain. Social security expenditure as a percentage of total healthcare spending rose from 5.7% in FY 2015 to 9.3% in FY 2020. This signifies efforts to enhance healthcare accessibility, affordability, and inclusivity, particularly for vulnerable populations.

 

Conclusion:
 
Your Conclusion should be simple and balanced

The National Health Accounts Estimates for India: 2019-20 signify a positive trajectory in healthcare financing, resource allocation, and sectoral priorities. These outcomes underscore the government's dedication to improving healthcare accessibility, reducing financial burdens on citizens, and strengthening the foundational pillars of primary healthcare. Through strategic investments and policy frameworks, India's healthcare system continues to evolve, ensuring better health outcomes and enhanced well-being for its citizens.

 
Other Points to Consider 

Challenges in the Healthcare Sector

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Appropriate local community-level healthcare intervention is a prerequisite to achieve ‘Health for All’ in India. Explain. (2018)

2. In order to enhance the prospects of social development, sound and adequate health care policies are needed particularly in the fields of geriatric and maternal health care. Discuss. (2020)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
Describe the blue economy and explain its significance. Does India have a blue economy policy?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The concept of the "blue economy" broadly encompasses economic activities linked to oceans and coastlines, often with an implicit emphasis on sustainability.

According to the European Commission, it encompasses "all economic activities related to oceans, seas, and coasts, encompassing a wide array of interconnected established and emerging sectors."

The World Bank defines the blue economy as the "sustainable utilization of ocean resources to foster economic growth, enhance livelihoods, and create employment opportunities while safeguarding the health of ocean ecosystems."

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

For countries like India, endowed with extensive coastlines, abundant marine resources, and diverse tourism potential, the blue economy holds significant importance.

Finance Minister Sitharaman highlighted the launch of a scheme focusing on restoration, adaptation measures, coastal aquaculture, and mariculture, adopting an integrated, multi-sectoral approach.

Restoration and adaptation efforts are vital to ensuring that economic activities do not compromise the health of ocean ecosystems.

Does India have a blue economy policy?

A preliminary draft policy framework for India's Blue Economy was unveiled in July 2022.

As per the Press Information Bureau (PIB), the policy blueprint outlined key recommendations covering aspects such as the National Accounting Framework for the Blue Economy, Ocean Governance, Coastal Marine Spatial Planning, Tourism Prioritization, Marine Fisheries, Aquaculture, Fish Processing, Manufacturing, Emerging Industries, Trade, Technology, Services, Skill Development, Logistics, Infrastructure, Shipping, Coastal and Deep-Sea Mining, Offshore Energy, Security, Strategic Dimensions, and International Engagement.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

The Finance Minister additionally announced plans to establish five integrated aquaparks and expand the Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY) to increase aquaculture productivity, double exports to Rs 1 lakh crore, and create 55 lakh employment opportunities in the near future, as reported by ANI

Other Points to Consider

Coastal aquaculture

Mariculture

 

 

Previous Year Questions

Explain the causes and effects of coastal erosion in India. What are the available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard? (2022)

Explain various types of revolutions, took place in Agriculture after Independence in India. How these revolutions have helped in poverty alleviation and food security in India? (2017)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is nano di-ammonium phosphate (Nano DAP)? Why does the government want to expand its use?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

DAP, known as di-ammonium phosphate, ranks as the second most utilized fertilizer in India following urea.

It boasts a high phosphorus content that plays a vital role in stimulating root establishment and development. Without adequate phosphorus, plants struggle to attain their usual size or experience delayed maturation.

Nano DAP, comprising 8% Nitrogen and 16% Phosphorus by volume, diverges from conventional DAP, which typically exists in granular form. Notably, the Nano DAP manufactured by the Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO) is presented in liquid form.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Rationale for Government Interest:

The minute particle size of Nano DAP renders it more efficient compared to its traditional counterpart. This efficiency allows the fertilizer to penetrate easily into the seed surface or through plant openings such as stomata.

Enhanced assimilation of the fertilizer within the plant system translates to augmented seed vigor, heightened chlorophyll levels, enhanced photosynthetic efficiency, improved crop quality, and amplified yields.

Given the substantial subsidies offered by the government on DAP, transitioning to a more economical fertilizer variant is poised to alleviate the government's subsidy burden significantly.

Advantages:

Nano DAP proves to be more economically viable.

Its liquid form renders Nano DAP considerably more convenient for application.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

Most notably, India presently relies heavily on fertilizer imports to meet domestic demand. The widespread adoption of domestically produced Nano DAP, manufactured in Kalol, Gujarat, is anticipated to markedly alleviate this dependence on imports.

This groundbreaking initiative not only propels Indian agriculture forward in food grain production but also bolsters India's self-reliance in fertilizer manufacturing.

The integration of Nano DAP into agricultural practices stands to foster self-sufficiency in fertilizers, thereby offering substantial benefits to our farming community

 

Other Points to Consider

IFFCO

Nano DAP

 

 

Previous Year Question

How do subsidies affect the cropping pattern, crop diversity and economy of farmers? What is the significance of crop insurance, minimum support price and food processing for small and marginal farmers? (2017)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the impact of climate change on agriculture in India.
 
Introduction:
 
A simple introduction about Climate Change
 
Climate change refers to long-term alterations in the Earth's climate patterns, including changes in temperature, precipitation, wind patterns, and other climatic factors. It is primarily driven by human activities that release greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases. These gases trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere, leading to global warming and subsequent changes in weather patterns and climate conditions worldwide.
 
 
Body:
You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture:

  • Rainfall and Temperature Changes: Climate change has led to erratic rainfall patterns and temperature fluctuations, impacting crop growth cycles. Dry spells, droughts, heatwaves, and floods disrupt agricultural operations and reduce crop yields.
  • Production Risks: Climate-induced risks pose threats to food security and rural economies. Variability in weather conditions increases production uncertainties, affecting crop productivity and farmer incomes.
  • Regional Variances: India's diverse agro-climatic zones experience varying impacts of climate change. Coastal areas face challenges such as saline intrusion due to sea-level rise, while inland regions deal with water scarcity and heat stress affecting crop suitability and productivity.
  • Crop Diversity and Livelihoods: Climate change affects crop diversity and the livelihoods of farmers dependent on specific crops. Shifts in climate suitability may necessitate changes in cropping patterns, adoption of resilient crop varieties, and sustainable agricultural practices.

Specific Impacts of Climate Change:

  • Temperature Variation: Rising temperatures affect crop growth stages, alter pest and disease dynamics, and impact livestock health and productivity.
  • Rainfall Variability: Changes in precipitation patterns lead to water stress, affecting irrigation, groundwater recharge, and crop water requirements.
  • Greenhouse Gas Concentration: Increasing greenhouse gas emissions contribute to climate change, affecting weather patterns and long-term climate stability.
  • Extreme Weather Events: Heatwaves, cyclones, and heavy rainfall events cause crop damage, soil erosion, and infrastructure disruptions, impacting agricultural productivity and food supply chains.
 
Conclusion:
Your Conclusion Should be simple and balanced 
 
India's agricultural sector plays a crucial role in ensuring food security, livelihoods, and economic growth. However, climate change poses significant challenges, necessitating adaptive strategies, sustainable practices, and investments in resilient agriculture. Addressing water management, soil conservation, crop diversification, and climate-smart technologies are essential for mitigating climate risks and ensuring sustainable agricultural development in India. Collaborative efforts involving government policies, research institutions, farmers, and civil society are vital to build climate resilience and achieve food and nutrition security goals amidst climate change uncertainties.
 
Other Points to Consider 

Interaction between climate change and agriculture

National Family Health Survey

Global Hunger Index

 

Previous Year Questions

1. What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification? (2021)

2. What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilise the yield of the crops in the system? (2017)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the impact of climate change on agriculture in India
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

World Food Day, observed on October 16, commemorates the establishment of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) in 1945, which was established primarily to ensure global food and nutrition security following World War II.

The theme for World Food Day 2023 is "Water is Life. Water is Food." Assessing India's strides towards food security and its utilization of water resources for agriculture is pertinent within this context, especially considering the detrimental effects of climate change on sustainable development across various ecosystems.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Climate Change Impact on Agriculture in India:

Alterations in rainfall patterns, temperature fluctuations (both maximum and minimum), and the sudden onset of extreme weather events like dry spells, droughts, heatwaves, and floods significantly impede crop growth, resulting in diminished productivity.

Such climate-induced risks to production not only jeopardize food security and nutritional requirements but also threaten the socioeconomic stability of rural economies.

However, the extent of climate change effects on agricultural output and livelihoods varies across India's diverse agro-climatic regions, making the impact uncertain in similar locales.

Climate change manifests in various agricultural impacts, including temperature variations, alterations in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, fluctuations in rainfall patterns (leading to floods, droughts, and altered runoff), and changes in groundwater recharge rates.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

Over the last three years (2020-2023), India has exported approximately 85 million tonnes (MT) of cereals, predominantly rice, wheat, and corn, solidifying its position as a leading producer.

India stands as the foremost producer of milk globally, and its fish and poultry production has witnessed rapid growth since 2000-2001, symbolizing the emergence of the "pink" (poultry) and "blue" (fisheries) revolutions alongside the historic green and white revolutions.

However, despite these advancements, malnutrition remains a concern, with about 16.6% of the population suffering from malnutrition, 35% of children under five experiencing stunted growth, and 32% being underweight, according to the latest National Family Health Survey (2020-2022)

 

Other Points to Consider

Interaction between climate change and agriculture

National Family Health Survey

Global Hunger Index

 

Previous Year Questions

What are the present challenges before crop diversification? How do emerging technologies provide an opportunity for crop diversification? (2021)

What are the major reasons for declining rice and wheat yield in the cropping system? How crop diversification is helpful to stabilise the yield of the crops in the system? (2017)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the importance of ozone layer. What are the reasons behind the depletion of ozone layer?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

Ozone, comprised of three oxygen molecules, primarily exists in the upper atmosphere known as the stratosphere, situated between 10 and 50 kilometers above Earth's surface. Existing in minimal concentrations, even at its densest points, ozone comprises only a few molecules per million air molecules.

Significance of Ozone:

The ozone layer serves as a crucial shield safeguarding life on Earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. By neutralizing this threat, ozone molecules play a pivotal role in mitigating the risk of skin cancer and other health issues in both plants and animals.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Observations made during Antarctic expeditions in the early 1980s revealed a significant decline in ozone concentration during September-November compared to 1950s records, culminating in the discovery of the "ozone hole" over Antarctica in 1985.

Causes:

The depletion of the ozone layer, particularly pronounced over Antarctica during September-November, arises from a complex interplay of meteorological and chemical factors. The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, hailed as the only universally embraced treaty in United Nations history, initiated the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) like Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Halons. By 2005, signatory nations had drastically reduced ODS consumption by 90-95%.

The Montreal Protocol regulates 96 chemicals, including CFCs, Halons, Carbon tetrachloride, Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and others. These substances, characterized by their longevity and non-toxic properties, persist in the atmosphere for extended periods, exacerbating ozone depletion.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

In addition to preserving the ozone layer, the elimination of ozone-depleting substances yields significant climate change benefits. Many of these substances, categorized as potent greenhouse gases, surpass carbon dioxide in terms of warming potential, underscoring the multifaceted environmental advantages of Montreal Protocol compliance

 

Other Points to Consider

Kigali Agreement

India’s effort

 

Previous Year Question

Troposphere is a very significant atmosphere layer that determines weather processes. How? (2022)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the importance of ozone layer. What are the reasons behind the depletion of ozone layer?
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple Introduction about Ozone Layer
 

The ozone layer, consisting of ozone molecules (a three-oxygen molecule), is crucial for life on Earth as it shields the planet from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Found primarily in the stratosphere, the ozone layer's protection against UV rays is essential for preventing skin cancer, cataracts, and other health issues in humans, as well as protecting ecosystems and wildlife.

 
Body:
 
You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:
 

Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion:

  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Halons: These synthetic chemicals were widely used in refrigerants, air conditioning systems, foam insulation, and fire extinguishers. When released into the atmosphere, CFCs and Halons break down ozone molecules in the stratosphere, leading to ozone depletion.
  • Halo-carbons and Other Ozone-Depleting Substances: Besides CFCs and Halons, other ozone-depleting substances like carbon tetrachloride, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), methyl chloroform, methyl bromide, and bromochloromethane contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer. These chemicals have varying atmospheric lifetimes but collectively pose a threat to ozone stability.
  • Chemical Reactions: Ozone depletion occurs due to complex chemical reactions involving ozone and ozone-depleting substances. For instance, chlorine and bromine atoms released from CFCs and Halons catalytically break down ozone molecules, reducing the ozone concentration in the stratosphere.

Efforts to Address Ozone Depletion:

  • Montreal Protocol: Recognizing the severity of ozone layer depletion, the international community established the Montreal Protocol in 1987. This treaty aimed to phase out the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. Over time, significant progress has been made in reducing the use of CFCs, Halons, and other harmful chemicals regulated under the protocol.
  • Replacement Technologies: The Montreal Protocol led to the development and adoption of alternative substances that do not harm the ozone layer. For example, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for CFCs in many applications, as they have zero ozone-depleting potential.

 

Conclusion:
Your Conclusion should be simple and Balanced
 
Protecting the ozone layer remains a global priority due to its critical role in maintaining Earth's ecological balance and safeguarding human health. The success of initiatives like the Montreal Protocol demonstrates the effectiveness of international cooperation in addressing environmental challenges. Continued efforts to phase out ozone-depleting substances and promote sustainable practices are essential for preserving the ozone layer and mitigating the risks associated with UV radiation and climate change.
 
 
Other Points to Consider 

Kigali Agreement

India’s effort

 

Previous Year Question

1. Troposphere is a very significant atmosphere layer that determines weather processes. How? (2022)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What are high-altitude pseudo-satellite vehicles (HAPS)? Discuss the challenges of HAPS
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The concept of High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS) refers to an advanced solar-powered unmanned aerial system designed to sustain prolonged control over a designated area, positioned above the troposphere, and equipped with specialized mission sensors. Operating at altitudes around 20 kilometers, solely powered by solar energy, and capable of enduring in-flight for several months, HAPS presents a revolutionary tool with multifaceted applications, notably in surveillance, monitoring, and disaster management scenarios.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

The National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) in Bengaluru recently achieved a milestone by conducting the inaugural test flight of a solar-powered "pseudo satellite," a cutting-edge unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) poised to elevate India's surveillance capabilities, particularly in border regions. Despite being a nascent technology, India's successful test flight positions it alongside a select group of nations exploring HAPS technology.

Challenges of HAPS:

Developing a self-sustaining solar-powered aircraft capable of extended flight durations presents formidable technological challenges. Key hurdles include generating sufficient solar energy to power the aircraft, sustain payload operations, and recharge batteries throughout the night. Additionally, design considerations must address the aircraft's lightweight construction to minimize power demands while ensuring stability. Operating in frigid temperatures exceeding -50 degrees Celsius at high altitudes necessitates specialized measures to maintain electronic functionality.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

Unlike conventional battery-powered UAVs limited by short flight durations and restricted coverage, HAPS represents a transformative advancement akin to geostationary satellites but with added versatility. Its capacity for redeployment to different locations and adaptability to diverse payloads distinguishes it from geostationary satellites, offering unprecedented flexibility in aerial surveillance and monitoring applications

Other Points to Consider

What is the need for such UAVs?

India and the HAPS

 

 

Previous Year Question

What is the main task of India’s third moon mission which could not be achieved in its earlier mission? List the countries that have achieved this task. Introduce the subsystems in the spacecraft launched and explain the role of the Virtual Launch Control Centre’ at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre which contributed to the successful launch from Sriharikota. (2023)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is the Square Kilometer Array project? What benefits will joining it bring to the scientific community in India?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project represents a monumental international collaboration aimed at constructing the world's most extensive radio telescope, boasting a cumulative collecting area exceeding one million square meters. Unlike traditional single large telescopes, the SKA comprises thousands of dish antennas meticulously orchestrated to function as a unified entity. Situated in sparsely populated areas across South Africa and Australia, the antennas are strategically dispersed to minimize interference from human activities. Once operational, the SKA is poised to significantly surpass existing radio telescopes in potency, promising groundbreaking insights into the cosmos

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project represents a collaborative endeavor on a global scale aimed at constructing the most extensive radio telescope worldwide, boasting a cumulative collecting area exceeding one million square meters.

Unlike traditional single large telescopes, the SKA comprises thousands of dish antennas meticulously orchestrated to function as a unified entity.

Strategically located in sparsely populated areas, the antennas are dispersed across South Africa and Australia, with approximately 200 and over 130,000 installations, respectively, chosen to minimize interference from human activities.

Once operational, the SKA is poised to outperform existing radio telescopes by a considerable margin, exhibiting a potency ranging from 5 to 60 times that of current counterparts operating within similar frequency spectrums.

Benefits for India

India has officially committed to participating in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) initiative, a pivotal global scientific collaboration endeavoring to construct the world's largest radio telescope.

Although none of the SKA infrastructure will be situated within Indian territory, the country stands to reap substantial scientific and technological dividends by assuming full membership in the project.

While India has been actively involved in the SKA project for several years, attaining full member status entails formal ratification of an international treaty and a corresponding financial commitment, thereby unlocking enhanced scientific prospects with the impending facility.

Comparable to the scientific opportunities presented by initiatives such as the LHC or ITER, despite being situated abroad, the SKA membership offers India preferential access to the facilities and resources of the project.

As a full member, India stands to gain preferential allocation of time on the radio telescope, commensurate with its contribution to the endeavor, with limited additional time slots accessible via competitive selection processes.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

India has allocated Rs 1,250 crore towards the SKA project, earmarking its financial commitment for the construction phase of the initiative.

In addition to its involvement in the SKA, India has embarked on constructing a gravitational wave detector to augment the international LIGO network and holds full membership status in the ITER project, focusing on harnessing energy from nuclear fusion reactions.

Furthermore, India's robust engagement in initiatives such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world's largest and most potent particle accelerator, underscores its proactive participation in groundbreaking scientific endeavors at the global forefront

Other Points to Consider

India’s involvement

Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory

ITER project

 

 

Previous Year Questions

Launched on 25th December, 2021, James Webb Space Telescope has been much in the news since then. What are its unique features which make it superior to its predecessor Space Telescopes? What are the key goals of this mission? What potential benefits does it hold for the human race? (2022)

Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics. (2018)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:

What is coral reef bleaching? What causes coral bleaching at the Great Barrier Reef?

 

Introduction:

A Simple Introduction about Coral Reef Bleaching

Coral reef bleaching is a phenomenon that occurs when coral colonies expel the algae living in their tissues, leading to the whitening or bleaching of coral structures. This expulsion of algae happens due to stress caused by various environmental factors. One of the most significant causes of coral bleaching, especially at the Great Barrier Reef, is the rising ocean temperatures attributed to climate change.

 

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Causes of Coral Bleaching:

  • Change in Ocean Temperature: Elevated sea temperatures, primarily driven by climate change, are a major trigger for coral bleaching. When water temperatures rise beyond certain thresholds, corals expel the symbiotic algae living within them, resulting in bleaching.
  • Runoff and Pollution: Land-based pollution, including runoff containing sediments, nutrients, and chemicals from agricultural and urban areas, can stress coral reefs and contribute to bleaching events.
  • Overexposure to Sunlight: Excessive exposure to sunlight, particularly during low tides, can cause thermal stress on corals, leading to bleaching.
  • High Solar Irradiance: Intense solar radiation, especially during periods of calm and clear weather, can increase water temperatures and induce stress on coral reefs.
  • Extreme Low Tides: During exceptionally low tides, corals can be exposed to air for prolonged periods, causing stress and potential bleaching, especially in shallow-water coral colonies.

Great Barrier Reef and Coral Bleaching:

The Great Barrier Reef, one of the world's largest coral reef systems, faces significant threats from coral bleaching. The extensive reef, covering about 344,400 square kilometers, is home to diverse marine life and is highly sensitive to environmental changes.

In the 2019 Outlook Report by the Australian government, climate change was identified as the primary threat to the Great Barrier Reef. Rising sea temperatures, ocean acidification, and extreme weather events associated with climate change pose severe risks to the health and survival of coral reefs worldwide, including the Great Barrier Reef.

 

Conclusion:

Your Conclusion Should be simple and Balanced

Coral reefs play a vital role in marine ecosystems, supporting biodiversity, coastal protection, and fisheries. Coral bleaching, driven by factors like rising ocean temperatures due to climate change, poses a significant threat to these fragile ecosystems. Protecting coral reefs requires global efforts to mitigate climate change, reduce pollution, and promote sustainable practices to ensure the long-term health and resilience of coral reef ecosystems like the Great Barrier Reef.

 

Other Points to Consider 

What are reefs good for?

Coastal flooding

 

Previous Year Questions

1. What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystems? (2018)

2. Explain the causes and effects of coastal erosion in India. What are the available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard? (2022)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is the Supreme Court Legal Services Committee? What is the need for legal services, and how are they provided to the public?
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

Established under Section 3A of the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987, the Supreme Court Legal Services Committee serves the purpose of offering "free and proficient legal services" to marginalized sections of society within the jurisdiction of the apex court.

Section 3A mandates the constitution of the committee by the Central Authority, which is the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA).

The committee is chaired by a sitting Supreme Court judge, as stipulated by the Act, and comprises members possessing the requisite qualifications and experience determined by the Central government.

Both the chairman and the other members are nominated by the Chief Justice of India (CJI), who also holds the authority to appoint the Committee's Secretary.

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

The imperative of providing legal aid finds mention in various provisions of the Indian Constitution. Article 39A emphasizes the State's obligation to ensure that the legal system operates in a manner that fosters justice and equal opportunity, including the provision of free legal assistance.

Articles 14 (equality before the law) and 22(1) (right to be informed of grounds for arrest) further reinforce the State's duty to uphold equality and ensure a legal framework that upholds justice on the basis of equal opportunity.

Despite the initial proposal for a legal assistance system in the 1950s, it wasn't until 1980 that a national committee, chaired by then-Supreme Court Justice PN Bhagwati, was formed. This Committee for Implementing Legal Aid Schemes was tasked with overseeing legal aid initiatives nationwide.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

The enactment of the Legal Services Authorities Act in 1987 provided a statutory foundation to legal aid initiatives, aiming to furnish free and proficient legal services to eligible groups, including women, children, SC/ST and EWS categories, industrial workers, persons with disabilities, among others.

The Supreme Court Legal Services Committee, headed by Chairperson BR Gavai and comprising nine members appointed by the CJI, possesses the authority to appoint officers and staff members as per the guidelines set by the Central government, in consultation with the CJI

 

Other Points to Consider

Legal Services Authorities Act

NALSA

Articles 14

 

 

Previous Year Questions

The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 remains only a legal document without intense sensitisation of government functionaries and citizens regarding disability. Comment. (2022)

Who are entitled to receive free legal aid? Assess the role of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) in rendering free legal aid in India. (2023)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)? Highlight the objectives of NCAP.
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple introdution about NCAP

The National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) is a significant initiative established by the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, Government of India, in January 2019. It serves as a comprehensive, long-term strategy aimed at addressing the country's air pollution challenges effectively. The NCAP focuses on reducing particulate matter concentrations, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, which are hazardous to human health.

 
Body:
 
You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:
 

Objectives of NCAP

  1. Mitigation Measures: Implementing stringent measures for the prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution. This includes adopting advanced technologies, enforcing regulations on emissions from industries and vehicles, and promoting cleaner fuels.

  2. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring: Establishing and enhancing an efficient ambient air quality monitoring network across the country. This network ensures a robust and reliable database on air quality parameters, helping in assessing pollution levels, identifying hotspots, and formulating targeted interventions.

  3. Public Awareness and Capacity Building: Conducting public awareness campaigns and capacity-building initiatives. These efforts aim to educate the public about the health impacts of air pollution, promote sustainable practices, and foster community participation in pollution control measures. Training programs are also conducted to build expertise and infrastructure for air quality management.

 
Conclusion:
 
Your Conclusion should be simple and balanced
 

The NCAP's primary goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in particulate matter concentrations, especially PM10 and PM2.5, by 20% to 30% by 2024 and now further aiming for a 40% reduction by 2026. These targets are crucial for improving ambient air quality and safeguarding public health. Additionally, the NCAP emphasizes collaborative efforts involving central ministries, state governments, local bodies, and various stakeholders to ensure a coordinated approach in combating air pollution across all sources and sectors. Through city-specific action plans and continuous monitoring, the NCAP strives to create cleaner and healthier environments for all citizens.

 

Other Points to Ponder

What are Non Attainment Cities?

Central Pollution Control Board

Implementation of NCAP

 

 

Previous Year Questions

1. India has immense potential of solar energy though there are regional variations in its developments. Elaborate. (2019)

2. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted a global sea level rise of about one metre by AD 2100. What would be its impact in India and the other countries in the Indian Ocean region? (2023)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
The relationship between India and Russia has remained remarkably stable despite fluctuations in the ties of other major nations. Discuss
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

India's relationship with Russia has been enduring and dependable, forming a crucial aspect of India's foreign policy.

The partnership between India and Russia has evolved significantly, marked by enhanced collaboration across various sectors including politics, security, defense, trade, economy, science and technology, culture, and people-to-people exchanges.

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

During a visit to Moscow by External Affairs Minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, it was emphasized that the Indo-Russian relationship has remained remarkably steady amidst fluctuations in ties with other major nations.

India and Russia have maintained a remarkably stable relationship since the mid-20th century, marked by minimal bilateral disagreements and frequent alignment of their geopolitical interests, contributing to a stable power balance in Asia.

The absence of annual summits does not signify a decline in the relationship; on the contrary, bilateral economic cooperation has witnessed growth over the past couple of years.

India and Russia are not merely reverting to their previous dynamics; the context of their bilateral ties has fundamentally transformed. In 1991, India's GDP was half that of Russia's, but today, India's economy surpasses Russia's significantly.

A significant development in bilateral cooperation occurred in December 2021 with the inaugural 2+2 Dialogue, involving the Foreign and Defense Ministers of both countries, held alongside summit-level talks.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

India and Russia collaborate closely on various multilateral platforms such as the UN, G20, BRICS, and SCO. India's Presidency of the G20 and SCO in 2023 facilitated interactions between officials and ministers of both countries during events in India.

Maintaining a pragmatic bilateral relationship will afford India and Russia greater adaptability in an increasingly polarized global landscape

 

Other Points to Consider

Trade & Economic relations

Defence & Security Cooperation

Science & Technology Cooperation

 

 

Previous Year Questions

Virus of Conflict is affecting the functioning of the SCO’ In the light of the above statement point out the role of India in mitigating the problems. (2023)

India is an age-old friend of Sri Lanka.’ Discuss India’s role in the recent crisis in Sri Lanka in the light of the preceding statement. (2022)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is a Large Language Model, or LLM? How many types of LLMs are there and how do they work?
 

Introduction:

 The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

Large Language Models (LLMs), as defined by Google, are expansive general-purpose models capable of being pre-trained and subsequently fine-tuned for specific tasks.

These models are equipped to tackle common language challenges including text classification, question answering, cross-industry text production, document summarization, and more.

LLMs can also be customized to address specific issues across various domains such as finance, retail, entertainment, etc., often utilizing relatively small sets of field-specific datasets.

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Types of LLMs

LLMs can be classified in several ways:

(i) Architecturally, they fall into three categories: autoregressive, transformer-based, and encoder-decoder models.

(ii) In terms of training data, there are three types: pretrained and fine-tuned, multilingual models capable of understanding and generating text in multiple languages, and domain-specific models trained on data relevant to particular fields such as legal, finance, or healthcare.

(iii) They can also be categorized as open-source or closed-source based on availability; while some are publicly accessible, others remain proprietary. Examples of open-source LLMs include LLaMA2, BlOOM, Google BERT, Falcon 180B, and OPT-175 B, whereas proprietary LLMs include Claude 2, Bard, and GPT-4.

How LLMs Operate?

LLMs operate on the principle of "deep learning", involving the construction of artificial neural networks inspired by the structure and functioning of the human brain.

These neural networks are trained to predict the probability of a word or sequence of words given the preceding words in a sentence for LLMs.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

LLMs excel in predicting the most probable next word or sequence of words based on input prompts.

With their versatility, LLMs find applications across diverse domains, generating text for various purposes such as articles, songs, poems, and stories, while also serving as virtual assistants or engaging in conversations

 

Other Points to Consider

ChatGPT

Gemini

What are the advantages of LLMs?

 

Previous Year Questions

Introduce the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI). How does AI help clinical diagnosis? Do you perceive any threat to privacy of the individual in the use of AI in healthcare? (2023)

What do you understand by nanotechnology and how is it helping in health sector? (2020)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
The average global temperature on Earth has increased by at least 1.1 degree Celsius since 1850. Discuss how climate change impacts extreme weather events.
 
 
Introduction: 
 
A Simple introduction about Global Temperature
 
The global temperature refers to the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and surface, typically calculated over a specific period, such as a month, year, or decade. It is a crucial metric used in climate science to monitor and understand climate patterns, changes, and trends over time.
 
Body:
 
You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

The rise in the average global temperature since 1850, by at least 1.1 degrees Celsius, has significantly impacted extreme weather events worldwide. 

  • Increased Frequency and Intensity: The warming climate has led to more frequent and intense extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, floods, hurricanes, and wildfires. This is primarily due to the unprecedented emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere from human activities.
  • Heat Waves: Climate change has amplified heat waves globally. For instance, a study following a deadly 2019 heatwave in Western Europe revealed that climate change made such extreme heat events five times more likely. In India, the duration and intensity of heatwaves have also increased, leading to significant health risks and agricultural impacts.
  • Droughts: Rising temperatures have exacerbated drought conditions in various regions. East Africa, for example, experienced its worst drought in 40 years between 2020 and 2022. Climate change made this severe drought at least 100 times more likely, according to a report by World Weather Attribution (WWA).
  • Wildfires: Extreme heat and dry conditions increase the likelihood and severity of wildfires. Climate change has extended the wildfire season and created more conducive conditions for wildfires by reducing moisture in vegetation. Regions like Eastern Canada have experienced heightened "fire weather" conditions due to climate change, leading to increased wildfire risks.
  • Floods: Warmer temperatures cause increased evaporation of water from land and oceans, leading to a warmer and moisture-laden atmosphere. This intensifies precipitation during storms, resulting in more severe and frequent flooding events. The atmosphere's ability to hold around 7% more moisture for every 1-degree Celsius increase in temperature contributes to heavier rainfall and subsequent flooding.
  • Sea Level Rise: Climate change has also contributed to rising sea levels due to thermal expansion and melting glaciers. This has increased the vulnerability of coastal areas to storm surges and flooding during extreme weather events like hurricanes and cyclones.

 

Conclusion
 
Your conclusion should be simple and balanced
 
Climate change has significantly altered the dynamics of extreme weather events, making them more frequent, intense, and impactful. These changes highlight the urgent need for global efforts to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the changing climate to reduce the risks associated with extreme weather events.
 
 
Other Points to ponder
Droughts
Water scarcity
Wildfires
Rising sea levels

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Discuss the consequence of Climate change on the food security in tropical countries. (2023)

2. How do the melting of the Arctic ice and glaciers of the Antarctic differently affect the weather patterns and human activities on the Earth? Explain. (2021)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is Fair and Remunerative Price for Sugarcane? Discuss how FRP differs from MSP
 

Introduction:

 The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The Fair and Remunerative Price (FRP) for sugarcane is determined by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) at the central level.

This price is calculated based on the sugar recovery rate from the cane, which represents the percentage of sugar extracted relative to the amount of cane crushed. A higher recovery rate translates to a higher FRP, reflecting increased sugar production from the cane.

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Sugar mills are legally obligated to pay the FRP to sugarcane farmers for their produce. Failure to settle FRP dues within 14 days of cane sale may lead to enforcement action by cane commissioners. Non-payment could result in the seizure of mill assets as outstanding land tax liabilities.

How does FRP differ from the Minimum Support Price (MSP)?

MSPs serve as a safety net for farmers, ensuring a minimum guaranteed payment to mitigate risks associated with agriculture, such as adverse weather conditions.

They provide stability in market prices, preventing fluctuations that could impact both farmers' incomes and consumers' access to essential food items.

The government announces MSPs annually for specific crops, indicating the price at which it will procure the produce from farmers if market prices fall below the set MSP.

MSPs are determined based on various factors including production costs, demand-supply dynamics, market trends, and ensuring a minimum profit margin for farmers, typically set at 50% over production costs.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

The central government introduced MSP for sugar in 2018 as part of measures to stabilize sugar prices and maintain a balanced demand-supply ratio.

Additionally, the government has established mill-specific sales quotas. Non-compliance with these regulations could lead to punitive measures under the Essential Commodities Act of 1955, including fines, imprisonment, or both, as a means to regulate the sugar industry effectively

 

Other Points to Consider

Why does sugarcane have both the FRP and MSP?

 

 

Previous Year Questions

What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap? (2018)

What are the challenges and opportunities of the food processing sector in the country? How can the income of the farmers be substantially increased by encouraging food processing? (2020)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is Raisina Dialogue? Discuss the thematic pillars of the dialogue.
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The Raisina Dialogue is an annual gathering focused on discussions about global geopolitics and geoeconomics, aimed at tackling the world's most pressing issues.

Held in New Delhi, the conference draws participants from diverse backgrounds including politics, business, media, and civil society.

It serves as a platform for a wide-ranging dialogue involving heads of state, cabinet ministers, local government officials, as well as leaders from the private sector, media, and academia.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

The theme for the 2024 edition, as announced by the Ministry of External Affairs, is “Chaturanga: Conflict, Contest, Cooperate, Create.”

Participants engage in discussions revolving around six key thematic pillars:

(i) Advancing Tech Frontiers: Regulation & Reality;

(ii) Promoting Peace with the Planet: Investment & Innovation;

(iii) Navigating War & Peace: Armaments & Asymmetry;

(iv) Reshaping Multilateralism: Institutions & Inclusivity;

(v) Charting the Post-2030 Agenda: People & Progress; and

(vi) Safeguarding Democracy: Society & Sovereignty.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

The 9th edition of the Raisina Dialogue saw a diverse representation from over 100 countries, including Ministers, former Heads of State and Government, Military Leaders, Industry Captains, Technology Pioneers, Scholars, Journalists, and Youth, reflecting its broad appeal and significance as a global forum for dialogue and exchange of ideas

Other Points to Consider

Who was the chief guest for the conference?

Observer Research Foundation

 

Previous Year Questions

Discuss the role of the Competition Commission of India in containing the abuse of dominant position by the Multi-National Corporations in India. Refer to the recent decisions. (2023)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
Discuss the socio-economic effects of the introduction of railways in the Himalayas and North Eastern Region of India.
 
 
Introduction:
 
A Simple introduction about  Mountain Railways of India

The introduction of railways in the Himalayas and the North Eastern Region of India has brought about significant socio-economic effects. The Mountain Railways of India, including the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountain Railway, and the Kalka Shimla Railway, were remarkable engineering feats built between 1881 and 1908. They not only provided a means of transportation but also contributed to various socio-economic developments in these regions.

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Socio-economic Effects in the Himalayas

  • Improved Connectivity: The railways in the Himalayas have enhanced connectivity between different regions, making travel more accessible and reducing travel time significantly. For example, the train connection between Srinagar and Jammu has contributed to smoother transportation of goods and passengers.
  • Boost to Trade: The railways have facilitated the transport of goods such as apples, dry fruits, handicrafts, and other local products from the Himalayan region to other parts of the country. This has reduced transportation costs and made these products more competitive in the market.
  • Development of Remote Areas: The railways have provided connectivity to remote and inaccessible areas in the Himalayas. This connectivity has led to socio-economic development in these regions by promoting tourism, trade, and infrastructure development.

Railway Development in North Eastern India

  • Integration with East Asia: Rail connectivity initiatives in the North Eastern region aim to integrate the region with East Asian countries and ASEAN nations. Projects like the Dimapur-Kohima Railway, Teteliya-Byrnihat Railway, and others are crucial for this integration.
  • Gateway to the Northeast: Guwahati, known as the Gateway to the Northeast, plays a pivotal role in connecting the region with the rest of India. Rail projects like the Jiribam-Imphal Railway and the Bairabi-Sairang Railway are essential for enhancing connectivity and socio-economic development in these areas.
  • Socio-economic Impact: The rail projects in the North East are expected to bring significant socio-economic benefits. They will improve accessibility, promote tourism, boost trade, and contribute to overall infrastructure development in the region.

Conclusion:

Your Conclusion should be balanced

The introduction of railways in the Himalayas and the North Eastern Region of India has had far-reaching socio-economic impacts. These include improved connectivity, boost to trade and tourism, development of remote areas, and integration with neighboring countries. Continued investment in railway infrastructure and connectivity projects is crucial for sustaining and enhancing these socio-economic benefits in the future.

 

Other points to consider

Chenab Bridge
Anji Bridge
Jammu-Baramulla Railway link

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Bring out the socio-economic effects of the introduction of railways in different countries of the world. (2023)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
How are Rajya Sabha MPs elected? Discuss how voting is done and votes are counted
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The Rajya Sabha, a permanent House under the Indian Constitution, operates with a system ensuring continuity through staggered retirements of one-third of its members every two years. These vacancies are filled through biennial elections, maintaining the House's composition of 245 members. While 233 members represent states and union territories, the President nominates the remaining 12. Vacancies due to resignation, demise, or disqualification are filled through by-elections, with the elected members serving the remainder of their predecessors' terms. Article 80(3) mandates that nominated members possess specialized knowledge or practical experience in various fields and allows them to join a political party within six months of assuming office.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Voting Mechanism:

The election of Rajya Sabha MPs involves an indirect electoral process wherein Members of Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) elect them. As per Article 80(4), state Assembly members elect Rajya Sabha members through a proportional representation system using a single transferable vote method. The Fourth Schedule of the Constitution determines the allocation of Rajya Sabha seats to states and Union Territories based on their population.

Vote Counting Process:

The calculation of required votes for a candidate depends on the number of vacancies and the House's strength. For a single vacancy, the Election Commission's Conduct of Election Rules, 1961, dictates that a candidate needs the majority of votes polled, divided by two, plus one. For instance, if 100 votes are cast, the candidate requires 51 votes.

In cases of multiple vacancies, each first-preference vote carries a value of 100. The total value of votes cast for all candidates is divided by one more than the number of vacancies, and one is added to the quotient. For example, if 100 members vote for three vacancies, the required quota for any candidate would be (100 × 100)/(3 + 1) + 1 = 2501.

If no candidate secures the specified number of votes, second-preference votes are considered, albeit with reduced value, to determine the winner

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

The Rajya Sabha, functioning as a crucial pillar of India's parliamentary democracy, ensures representation from states and Union Territories through a nuanced electoral process. The indirect election of its members by MLAs, utilizing proportional representation and single transferable vote methods, upholds the constitutional mandate. The meticulous calculation of required votes, governed by the Election Commission's rules, guarantees a fair and transparent electoral process. Through this mechanism, the Rajya Sabha maintains its role as a vital forum for deliberation and decision-making, contributing significantly to India's legislative landscape and democratic ethos

Other Points to Ponder

Why do Rajya Sabha numbers matter?

How often are Rajya Sabha elections held?

 

Previous Year Questions

 

Discuss the role of Presiding Officers of state legislatures in maintaining order and impartiality in conducting legislative work and in facilitating best democratic practices. (2023)

Discuss the role of the Vice-President of India as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. (2022)

Rajya Sabha has been transformed from a ‘useless stepney tyre’ to the most useful supporting organ in past few decades. Highlight the factors as well as the areas in which this transformation could be visible. (2019)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
What is WTO Agreement on Agriculture? Discuss the broad areas of agriculture and trade policy
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The Uruguay Round global trade negotiations, formally endorsed in Marrakesh, Morocco, in April 1994, ushered in various agreements, including the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, which commenced implementation from January 1, 1995. This agreement delineated specific reduction obligations for different categories of countries, emphasizing market access, domestic support, and export subsidies.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Market Access:

Provisions concerning market access encompassed tariffication, tariff reductions, and access opportunities. Industrialized nations were mandated to reduce their ordinary tariffs by an average of 36% over a six-year period, with each tariff item subjected to a minimum reduction of 15%. Conversely, developing nations, still grappling with quantitative restrictions due to balance-of-payments concerns, were permitted to offer ceiling bindings instead of tariffs.

Domestic Support:

Regarding domestic support measures, which were subject to reduction commitments, affluent nations were required to curtail overall support provided during 1986-88 by 20%, while developing countries faced a reduction of 13.3%. Certain policies falling under domestic support categories, constituting less than 5% of the value of production for developed countries and less than 10% for developing nations, were exempt from reduction commitments.

Export Subsidies:

The Agreement mandated reductions in export subsidies, with developed countries tasked with slashing export subsidy expenditure by 36% and volume by 21% over six years, based on 1986-1990 levels. Similarly, developing countries were required to make cuts of 24% and 14%, respectively, over a decade. Furthermore, the Agreement prohibited future subsidies for products not subject to export subsidy reduction agreements.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

Although the WTO’s ministerial conference concluded without resolving crucial issues pertinent to India's interests, such as devising a permanent solution for the public food Public Stockholding (PSH) program and curbing fisheries subsidies contributing to overcapacity and overfishing, members agreed to extend the moratorium on imposing import duties on e-commerce trade for an additional two years. These deliberations underscore the ongoing challenges and negotiations within the WTO framework

 

Other Points to Consider

13th ministerial conference (MC)

India’s commitment

India’s PSH (Public Stockholding) programme

 

 

Previous Year Questions

What are the direct and indirect subsidies provided to farm sector in India? Discuss the issues raised by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in relation to agricultural subsidies. (2023)

How would the recent phenomena of protectionism and currency manipulations in world trade affect macroeconomic stability of India? (2018)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:

The 299-member Constituent Assembly had a bright set of 15 women who came from diverse backgrounds. Discuss the role of women who wrote the Constitution of India.

 

Introduction:

A simple introduction about Constituent Assembly

The Constituent Assembly of India was the body that drafted and adopted the Constitution of India. It was elected by the provincial assemblies that had been elected in 1946. The Constituent Assembly held its first meeting on December 9, 1946, and its last meeting on November 26, 1949.

The Assembly consisted of 299 members, of whom 284 were elected and 15 were nominated. The members were elected by the provincial assemblies that had been elected in 1946. The Constituent Assembly was chaired by Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

 

Body:

You may incorporate some of the following points in the body of your answer:

Role of Women in Drafting the Constitution of India

The 15 women members of the 299-member Constituent Assembly played a pivotal role in shaping the Constitution of India. Here's a detailed look at their contributions:

  1. Annie Mascarene: Fought for integrating Travancore into independent India and advocated for balanced centralization of power.
  2. Hansa Jivraj Mehta: Presented India's first national flag on Independence Day and staunchly opposed reservations for women, emphasizing equal opportunities instead.
  3. Dakshayani Velayudhan: Advocated for the abolition of untouchability and supported Article 17 of the Constitution. She emphasized the transformative role of the Constituent Assembly in shaping India's future.
  4. Amrit Kaur: Participated in the freedom struggle alongside Gandhi, advocated for the political empowerment of women, and supported the Uniform Civil Code.
  5. Ammu Swaminathan: Fought against caste-based discrimination, co-founded the Women's India Association, and supported adult franchise and the removal of untouchability.
  6. Durgabai Deshmukh: Known as the 'Mother of Social Work,' she established the Andhra Mahila Sabha and advocated for judicial reforms, including lowering the age requirement for holding ministerial positions.
  7. Begum Aizaz Rasul: Advocated for minority rights in a secular state and played a significant role in promoting women's hockey in India.
  8. Vijaya Laxmi Pandit: Emphasized India's responsibilities towards its citizens and other nations, advocated for the formation of the Constituent Assembly, and served as the first woman President of the UN General Assembly.

 

Conclusion:

Your Conclusion Should be balanced 

These women fought against patriarchy, caste oppression, and gender discrimination, and their diverse perspectives enriched the debates and discussions in the Constituent Assembly. Their contributions were instrumental in ensuring that the Constitution of India reflected the values of equality, justice, and social reform.

 

Other Points to Ponder

Vijaya Laxmi Pandit

 

Previous Year Questions

1. How the Indian concept of secularism is different from the western model of secularism? Discuss. (2018)

2. Women’s movement in India has not addressed the issues of women of lower social strata.’ Substantiate your view. (2018)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:
There is a significant increase in India’s leopard population as per Status of Leopards in India 2022. Discuss the methodology and outcomes of the report
 

Introduction:

The introduction of the answer is essential and should be restricted to 3-5 lines. Remember, a one-liner is not a standard introduction

The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is found across diverse forested habitats spanning India, Nepal, Bhutan, and certain regions of Pakistan. Classified as "Vulnerable" by the IUCN Red List and listed in Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, this species faces conservation challenges.

According to recent findings, India's leopard population increased from 12,852 in 2018 to 13,874 in 2022.

Body:

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content

Methodology:

The fifth cycle of leopard population assessment in India (2022) focused on forested habitats across 18 tiger states, encompassing four significant tiger conservation landscapes. Utilizing a likelihood-based spatially explicit capture mark-recapture (SECR) covariate model, researchers combined photo-captures with geographical data on prey, habitat, and human-induced factors to estimate leopard abundance.

Phase 1:

Systematic sampling of wooded regions within each landscape was conducted using M-STrIPES Android apps and desktop applications.

Phase 2:

Remote sensing and secondary data were employed to model leopard occupancy and abundance in response to habitat factors and human influences.

Phase 3:

SECR models were utilized to predict leopard density through camera trap data, with individuals identified using image and pattern processing applications such as CaTRACT and ExtractCompare.

Outcomes:

Madhya Pradesh boasts the highest leopard count in the country, with 3,907 individuals (up from 3,421 in 2018). Central India harbors the most significant population, comprising 8,820 leopards, followed by the Western Ghats with 3,596, and the Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains with 1,109 individuals. Population growth rates varied across regions, with a decline observed in the Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains, while other regions experienced moderate increases.

In Central India, a substantial proportion (68%) of leopards reside in human-use forests outside Protected Areas, heightening vulnerability to poaching and human-leopard conflicts. Similarly, in the Western Ghats, although leopard populations remain stable, a significant portion (65%) inhabits areas outside Protected Areas.

Conclusion:

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach

Conservation efforts for the Indian leopard necessitate a multifaceted approach, including habitat restoration initiatives, protection measures beyond Protected Areas, and the implementation of strategies to mitigate human-leopard conflicts. Records maintained by the Wildlife Protection Society of India (WPSI) underscore the urgency of addressing poaching threats, with over 5,500 leopards poached since 1994. Efforts aimed at safeguarding this species are imperative to ensure its long-term survival and ecological balance

Other Points to Ponder

Benefits from tiger conservation efforts

Leopard-human conflict remains a worry

 

 

Previous Year Questions

How does the draft Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 2020 differ from the existing EIA Notification, 2006? (2020)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted a global sea level rise of about one metre by AD 2100. What would be its impact in India and the other countries in the Indian Ocean region? (2023)

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024
Question:

Discuss the impact of the climate change on the Indian coastline.

 

Introduction

A simple introduction about India's Coastline

 India's vast coastline, stretching over 7,500 kilometres, is a national treasure. However, climate change casts a long shadow, threatening this precious resource. While global predictions suggest a slightly lower sea-level rise for India compared to other regions, the potential consequences are far from negligible.

 

Body

It is the central part of the answer and one should understand the demand of the question to provide rich content.

Impact of Climate Change on the Indian Coastline

The impact of climate change on India's coastline is a growing concern due to the vulnerability of coastal areas to rising sea levels, stronger waves, and changing weather patterns. 

  • Rising Sea Levels: Climate change contributes to the melting of polar ice caps and glaciers, leading to rising sea levels globally. While India's coastline is not as severely affected as some other regions, even a slight rise in sea level can have significant consequences for coastal communities, especially in low-lying areas.
  • Coastal Erosion: Stronger waves and increased coastal sediment transport due to changing wind patterns can accelerate coastal erosion. Studies, such as the one conducted by scientists at IIT Bombay, indicate that coastal erosion rates are likely to increase in the coming decades, leading to loss of land and habitat.
  • Shoreline Vulnerability: Climate change exacerbates the vulnerability of coastlines to natural hazards such as storms, cyclones, and tidal surges. These events can cause extensive damage to coastal infrastructure, ecosystems, and human settlements, posing risks to lives and livelihoods.
  • Local Impact Variability: The impact of climate change on India's coastline varies regionally based on factors such as local geomorphology, presence of barriers like harbors or river-mouths, and coastal development patterns. For example, areas with uninterrupted coastlines may experience different erosion rates compared to those with protective barriers.
  • Future Projections: Climate models project an increase in average wind speeds and wave heights in certain coastal regions, leading to accelerated erosion rates and heightened vulnerability. This underscores the importance of adaptive measures and sustainable coastal management practices.

 

Conclusion

The ending of the answer should be on a positive note and it should have a forward-looking approach.

As climate change continues to manifest in various environmental changes, including those affecting coastlines, it is crucial to conduct comprehensive studies and utilize advanced climate models for better assessment and prediction of future impacts. Additionally, strict enforcement of regulations such as the Coastal Regulation Zone rules is essential to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change on India's coastline and coastal communities. Collaboration between scientific institutions, policymakers, and local communities is vital to develop resilient strategies and adaptation measures for coastal areas in the face of climate change challenges.

 

Other Points to Ponder

Important places on Indian coasts

Climate change

 

Previous Year Questions

1. Discuss the consequence of Climate change on the food security in tropical countries. (2023)

2. What are the forces that influence ocean currents? Describe their role in fishing industry of the world. (2022)

3. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India? (2020)

 

(mains ) 04-Apr 2024