Current Affair



1. Context
In response to a letter from the Congress leader in Lok Sabha Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury seeking a short session of Parliament to discuss the new farm laws, Parliamentary Affairs Minister Pralhad Joshi has said that some opposition parties “have expressed concerns about the ongoing pandemic and opined of doing away with winter session”
2. Sessions of Parliament
  • The power to convene a session of Parliament rests with the government. The decision is taken by the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs, which currently comprises nine ministers, including those for Defence, Home, Finance, and Law.
  • The decision of the Committee is formalised by the President, in whose name MPs are summoned to meet for a session
  • India does not have a fixed parliamentary calendar. By convention, Parliament meets for three sessions in a year.
  • The longest, the Budget Session, starts towards the end of January, and concludes by the end of April or first week of May.
  • The session has a recess so that Parliamentary Committees can discuss the budgetary proposals
  • The second session is the three-week Monsoon Session, which usually begins in July and finishes in August.
  • The parliamentary year ends with a three week-long Winter Session, which is held from November to December
  • A general scheme of sittings was recommended in 1955 by the General Purpose Committee of Lok Sabha.
  • It was accepted by the government of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, but was not implemented.
3.Constitutional Provison
  • The summoning of Parliament is specified in Article 85 of the Constitution. Like many other articles, it is based on a provision of The Government of India Act, 1935.
  • This provision specified that the central legislature had to be summoned to meet at least once a year, and that not more than 12 months could elapse between two sessions
  • Dr B R Ambedkar stated that the purpose of this provision was to summon the legislature only to collect revenue, and that the once-a-year meeting was designed to avoid scrutiny of the government by the legislature.
  • On the floor of the Constituent Assembly, he said: “We thought and personally I also think that the atmosphere has completely changed and I do not think any executive would hereafter be capable of showing this kind of callous conduct towards the legislature.”
  • His drafting of the provision reduced the gap between sessions to six months, and specified that Parliament should meet at least twice a year
  • He argued that “The clause as it stands does not prevent the legislature from being summoned more often than what has been provided for in the clause itself
  • During the debate, members of the Constituent Assembly highlighted three issues: (i) the number of sessions in a year, (ii) the number of days of sitting and, (iii) who should have the power to convene Parliament
4. Instances of Moved, delayed, Stretched
  • Over the years, governments have shuffled around the dates of sessions to accommodate political and legislative exigencies. In 2017, the Winter Session was delayed on account of the Gujarat Assembly elections.
  • In 2011, political parties agreed to cut short the Budget Session so they could campaign for Vidhan Sabha elections in five states.
  • Sessions have also been cut short or delayed to allow the government to issue Ordinances.
  • For example, in 2016, the Budget Session was broken up into two separate sessions to enable the issuance of an Ordinance
  • Sessions have been stretched — in 2008, the two-day Monsoon Session (in which a no-confidence motion was moved against the UPA-I government over the India-US nuclear deal) was extended until December.
  • The ostensible reason was to prevent the moving of another no-confidence motion. It meant that there were only two sessions that year
5. Conclusion
Over the years, there has been a decline in the sittings days of Parliament. During the first two decades of Parliament, Lok Sabha met for an average of a little more than 120 days a year. This has come down to approximately 70 days in the last decade
This year, Parliament has met for 33 days. The last time it met for fewer than 50 days was in 2008, when it met for 46 days
For Prelims: Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, Standing Committee, Procedures of Parliament
For Mains: 1.Discuss the significance of Parliamentary Committees in the Indian legislative process. How do they contribute to the functioning of the Parliament? (15 marks)
2.Enumerate and explain the different types of Parliamentary Committees in India.
 Discuss their roles and functions. (20 marks)


Previous Year Questions

1.With reference to the Parliament of India, which of the following Parliamentary Committees scrutinizes and reports to the Ilouse whether the powers to make regulations, rules, sub-rules, by-laws, etc. conferred by the Constitution or delegated by the Parliament are being properly exercised by the Executive within the scope of such delegation?( UPSC CSE 2018)

  1. Committee on Government Assurances
  2. Committee on Subordinate Legislation
  3. Rules Committee
  4. Business Advisory Committee

Answer (b)

2.Consider the following statements:(UPSC CSE 2013)

The Parliamentary Committee on Public Accounts (PAC)

  1. consists of not more than 25 Members of the Lok Sabha
  2. scrutinizes appropriation and finance accounts of Government
  3. examines the report of CAG.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
Answer (b)

1.Why do you think the Committees are considered to be useful for parliamentary work? Discuss, in this context, the role of the Estimates Committee. (UPSC CSE Mains  2018)

2. Do Department -related Parliamentary Standing Committees keep the administration on its toes and inspire reverence for parliamentary control? Evaluate the working of such Committees with suitable examples. (UPSC CSE Mains 2020)


Source: indianexpress


1. Context
To mark the World Sanskrit Day , Prime Minister Narendra Modi asked people to share a sentence in Sanskrit on social media, following which several Union ministers tweeted in the language. “Greetings on World Sanskrit Day. I laud all those who are passionate about it. India has a very special relation with Sanskrit
2. About World Sanskrit day
  • The celebration of World Sanskrit Day aims to foster the promotion of Sanskrit, recognised as the world’s oldest language.
  • Additionally, this occasion serves as a commemoration of the birth anniversary of Pāṇini, a renowned scholar and grammarian in the field of Sanskrit.
  • Sanskrit is commonly referred to as Dev Vani, which translates to “the language of the Gods.” The Sanskrit language holds considerable importance within the context of Hinduism, as it serves as the medium of expression for numerous Hindu writings such as the Vedas, Upanishads, and Bhagavad Gita.
  • The first World Sanskrit Day was celebrated in 1969.
  • The day is marked on the last poornima (full moon) of the Hindu calendar month of Shravan, with an aim to raise awareness about the language used by scholars and saints in ancient India.
3. Sanskrit Language
  • Sanskrit is an ancient Indian language that is considered to be the "mother of all languages". It is a classical language belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.
  • It arose in South Asia after its predecessor languages had diffused there from the northwest in the late Bronze Age.
  • Sanskrit is the sacred language of Hinduism, the language of classical Hindu philosophy, and of historical texts of Buddhism and Jainism
  • The earliest known texts in Sanskrit are the Vedas, which are a collection of hymns, prayers, and rituals.
  • The Vedas are thought to have been composed between 1500 and 600 BCE. Sanskrit was also the language of the Upanishads, which are philosophical texts that explore the nature of reality.
  • The Bhagavad Gita, a philosophical poem that is part of the Mahabharata, is also written in Sanskrit.

Here are some key points about the Sanskrit language:

  1. Historical Significance: Sanskrit is one of the world's oldest languages and is often referred to as the "mother of all languages." It has a documented history spanning over 3,500 years.

  2. Classical Language: Sanskrit is considered a classical language of India and is revered for its precision, structure, and aesthetics. It has served as the medium for many classical Indian texts, including religious scriptures, philosophical treatises, poetry, and scientific writings.

  3. Religious Texts: Many of the most important religious texts in Hinduism, such as the Vedas (the oldest sacred scriptures), Upanishads, Bhagavad Gita, and various Puranas, were originally composed in Sanskrit. It also influenced the religious and philosophical thought of other Indian religions, such as Buddhism and Jainism.

  4. Linguistic Significance: Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the development of linguistics as a field of study. Ancient Indian grammarians, such as Panini and Patanjali, laid down comprehensive grammatical rules and structures for the language, which continue to be studied and admired by linguists.

  5. Pan-Indian Influence: Sanskrit served as a lingua franca for scholarly communication across the Indian subcontinent for centuries. It allowed scholars from different regions to access and contribute to a shared body of knowledge.

  6. Classical Literature: Some of the greatest literary works in Sanskrit include the Mahabharata and the Ramayana (epic poems), Kalidasa's plays and poems, and the works of Bhasa, a renowned playwright. Sanskrit literature encompasses a wide range of genres, from poetry and drama to philosophy and scientific treatises.

  7. Modern Relevance: While Sanskrit is no longer a widely spoken language, it continues to be studied and used for specific purposes. It remains the liturgical language for many Hindu rituals and ceremonies. Additionally, there are efforts to revive and promote Sanskrit as a classical language in contemporary education.

  8. Alphabet: Sanskrit is written in the Devanagari script, which is also used for several modern Indian languages, including Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali.

  9. International Interest: Sanskrit has garnered interest and respect worldwide, not only for its historical significance but also for its influence on linguistics, philosophy, and literature.

  10. Cultural Heritage: Sanskrit is considered a crucial part of India's cultural heritage, and its preservation and promotion continue to be a matter of national and cultural pride.

4.Classical Languages in India
India is home to a rich and diverse linguistic heritage, with several classical languages that have played pivotal roles in the country's history, culture, and literature. These classical languages are characterized by their antiquity, historical significance, and cultural importance

here are some of the classical languages of India:

  1. Sanskrit: Sanskrit, as mentioned earlier, is one of the most prominent classical languages of India. It has a rich literary tradition and has been the language of many ancient texts, including the Vedas, Upanishads, Mahabharata, Ramayana, and numerous philosophical and scientific treatises.

  2. Tamil: Tamil is one of the oldest classical languages in the world, with a history dating back over two millennia. It has a vast body of classical literature, including Sangam poetry, which is highly regarded for its literary and poetic excellence.

  3. Telugu: Telugu is another classical language known for its extensive literary tradition. Classical Telugu literature includes works like "Andhra Mahabharatam" and "Bhagavata Purana."

  4. Kannada: Kannada, the language of the southern state of Karnataka, has a rich literary tradition dating back to the 9th century. The works of poets like Pampa and Ranna are celebrated in Kannada classical literature.

  5. Malayalam: Malayalam, spoken in the state of Kerala, has a classical literary tradition known as "Sangam literature," which dates back to ancient times. It includes poetry and prose compositions.

  6. Odia (Oriya): The Odia language, spoken in the state of Odisha, has a classical literary heritage that includes works like the "Sarala Mahabharata" and the poetry of the Odia saint-poet Jayadeva.

5. Criteria for Classical language

The classification of a language as "classical" is typically based on specific criteria that recognize its historical, literary, and cultural significance. These criteria may vary from country to country, but in the Indian context, the following criteria are often considered when designating a language as classical:

  1. Historical Antiquity: The language should have a long and continuous history, dating back at least a thousand years or more. This criterion helps establish the language's ancient roots and its enduring presence in the culture.Languages has to be a minimum old of 2500 years

  2. Ancient Literature: The language should possess a substantial body of ancient literary texts, including religious scriptures, epics, poetry, and philosophical treatises. These texts should have had a significant impact on the culture and intellectual heritage of the region.

  3. Cultural Significance: The language should have played a pivotal role in the cultural, religious, and intellectual development of the region. It should have been a medium for the expression of ideas, beliefs, and artistic creativity.

  4. Recognition by Scholars: Recognition as a classical language often comes from scholars, linguists, and experts who acknowledge its historical importance and contributions to literature, philosophy, and other fields.

For Prelims: Eighth Schedule of Indian Constitution, Classical Languages
For Mains: 1.Explain the significance of the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. How does it promote linguistic diversity and cultural preservation in India? (15 marks)
2.Discuss the process and criteria for including languages in the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution. Examine the challenges faced by languages seeking inclusion. (20 marks)
Previous Year Questions
1. As Per the Eighth Schedule of the Indian Constitution How many languages are referred as scheduled languages (SSC CHSL 2020)
Answer (B) 
Source: indianexpress


1. Context
The third unit of the Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP-3) in Gujarat achieved its ‘first criticality’ — a term that signifies the initiation of a controlled but sustained nuclear fission reaction 
PM Narendra Modi congratulated India’s nuclear scientists on this achievement, describing the development of the indigenous reactor as “a shining example of Make in India” and a “trailblazer for many such future achievements”.
2.Significance of Kakapar-3
  • This is a landmark event in India’s domestic civilian nuclear programme given that KAPP-3 is the country’s first 700 MWe (megawatt electric) unit, and the biggest indigenously developed variant of the Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)
  • The PHWRs, which use natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, are the mainstay of India’s nuclear reactor fleet.
  • Until now, the biggest reactor size of indigenous design was the 540 MWe PHWR, two of which have been deployed in Tarapur, Maharashtra
  • The operationalisation of India’s first 700MWe reactor marks a significant scale-up in technology, both in terms of optimisation of its PHWR design — the new 700MWe unit addresses the issue of excess thermal margins — and an improvement in the economies of scale, without significant changes to the design of the 540 MWe reactor
  • Four units of the 700MWe reactor are currently being built at Kakrapar (KAPP-3 and 4) and Rawatbhata (RAPS-7 and 8).
  • The 700MWe reactors will be the backbone of a new fleet of 12 reactors to which the government accorded administrative approval and financial sanction in 2017, and which are to be set up in fleet mode
  • As India works to ramp up its existing nuclear power capacity of 6,780 MWe to 22,480 MWe by 2031, the 700MWe capacity would constitute the biggest component of the expansion plan.
  • Currently, nuclear power capacity constitutes less than 2% of the total installed capacity of 3,68,690 MW
  • As the civilian nuclear sector gears up for the next frontier — building a 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) of indigenous design — the experience of executing the larger 700MWe reactor design will come in handy, especially with regard to the improved capability of making large pressure vessels.
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station, Gujarat power plant, kakrapa atomic plant, KAPP-3, gujarat atomic plant leak, Karapar atomic power station leak, kakrapar atomic power station production, india news
Kakrapar Atomic Power Station, Gujarat power plant, kakrapa atomic plant, KAPP-3, gujarat atomic plant leak, Karapar atomic power station leak, kakrapar atomic power station production, india news
3. How does it work?
  • Reactors are the heart of an atomic power plant, where a controlled nuclear fission reaction takes place that produces heat, which is used to generate steam that then spins a turbine to create electricity
  •  Fission is a process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller nuclei, and usually some byproduct particles
  • When the nucleus splits, the kinetic energy of the fission fragments is transferred to other atoms in the fuel as heat energy, which is eventually used to produce steam to drive the turbines
  • For every fission event, if at least one of the emitted neutrons on average causes another fission, a self-sustaining chain reaction will take place.
  • A nuclear reactor achieves criticality when each fission event releases a sufficient number of neutrons to sustain an ongoing series of reactions
4.Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR)
A pressurized water reactor (PWR) is a type of nuclear reactor that uses ordinary water as both the coolant and the moderator. The water is kept under high pressure, which prevents it from boiling. The hot water then flows through a steam generator, where it heats water in a separate loop to create steam. The steam then drives a turbine, which generates electricity
Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) diagram
PWRs are the most common type of nuclear reactor in the world, accounting for about two-thirds of all nuclear power plants.
They are relatively safe and reliable, and they have a long operating life. However, they also produce radioactive waste, which must be carefully managed.
Key features of a PWR:
  • The reactor core is made up of fuel rods, which are filled with uranium
  • The fuel rods are surrounded by coolant water, which is kept under high pressure.
  • The hot coolant water flows through a steam generator, where it heats water in a separate loop to create steam.
  • The steam then drives a turbine, which generates electricity.
  • The used steam is condensed back into water and returned to the steam generator.
  • The radioactive waste produced by the reactor is stored in cooling ponds or underground repositories
5. Way forward

State-owned Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) had awarded the reactor-building contract for both KAPP-3 and 4 to Larsen & Toubro at an original contract value of Rs 844 crore.

The original cost of two 700 MWe units was pegged at Rs 11,500 crore, and the tariff per unit was originally calculated to be Rs 2.80 per unit (kWh) at 2010 prices (a cost of roughly Rs 8 crore per MWe). This costing is expected to have seen some escalation.

The capital investment for these projects is being funded with a debt-to-equity ratio of 70:30, with the equity part being funded from internal resources and through budgetary support

Previous year Questions
1.The function of heavy water in a nuclear reactor is to (UPSC CSE 2011)

(a) Slow down the speed of neutrons
(b) Increase the speed of neutrons
(c) Cool down the reactor
(d) Stop the nuclear reaction

Answer: (a)

2. In Nuclear Power Station, Moderator is used to  (ISRO Scientist Electrical 2014)
A. Absorb neutrons
B.Reduce the speed of neutrons
C. Accelerate the speed of nuetrons
D.Stop Chain reactions
Answer (B)
1.With growing energy needs should India keep on expanding its nuclear energy programme? Discuss the facts and fears associated with nuclear energy. (UPSC GS3 Mains 2018)
Source: indianexpress


1. Context
WHILE THIS was the driest August since 1901, from when rainfall records are available, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) said on Thursday that rainfall is likely to be near normal in September, with a revival of monsoon conditions likely from Saturday. The country recorded 162.7 mm of rainfall in August, a deficit of 36 per cent for the month. While normal rainfall for August is pegged at 254.9 mm, the lowest so far (since 1901) was 191.2 mm in 2005. The country recorded 162.7 mm of rainfall in August, a deficit of 36 per cent for the month. While normal rainfall for August is pegged at 254.9 mm, the lowest so far (since 1901) was 191.2 mm in 2005.

2. About Long Period Average (LPA)

  • The IMD predicts a “normal”, “below normal”, or “above normal” monsoon in relation to a benchmark “long period average” (LPA)
  • According to the IMD, the “LPA of rainfall is the rainfall recorded over a particular region for a given interval (like month or season) average over a long period like 30 years, 50 years, etc”
  • The IMD’s prediction of a normal monsoon on Thursday was based on the LPA of the 1971-2020 period, during which India received 87 cm of rain for the entire country on average
  • The IMD has in the past calculated the LPA at 88 cm for the 1961-2010 period, and at 89 cm for the period 1951-2000
  • While this quantitative benchmark refers to the average rainfall recorded from June to September for the entire country, the amount of rain that falls every year varies from region to region and from month to month
  • Therefore, along with the countrywide figure, the IMD also maintains LPAs for every meteorological region of the country  this number ranges from around 61 cm for the drier Northwest India to more than 143 cm for the wetter East and Northeast India
  • LPA of the southwest monsoon rainfall over Kerala: 556 mm, 659 mm, 427 mm and 252 mm for the months of June, July, August, and September respectively
  • Broken down monthwise for the entire country, the LPA figures for the season are 16.36 cm for June, 28.92 cm for July, 26.13 cm for August, and 17.34 cm for September

3. Need of LPA

  • The IMD records rainfall data at more than 2,400 locations and 3,500 rain-gauge stations
  • Because annual rainfall can vary greatly not just from region to region and from month to month, but also from year to year within a particular region or month, an LPA is needed to smooth out trends so that a reasonably accurate prediction can be made
  • A 50-year LPA covers for large variations in either direction caused by freak years of unusually high or low rainfall (as a result of events such as El Nino or La Nina)
  • As well as for the periodic drought years and the increasingly common extreme weather events caused by climate change

4.IMD Calculations

Quantitatively, the monsoon seasonal (June to September) rainfall is likely to be 99% of the LPA with a model error of ± 5%. The LPA of the season rainfall over the country as a whole for the period 1971-2020 is 87 cm

The IMD maintains five rainfall distribution categories on an all-India scale. These are:

  • Normal or near normal, when the percentage departure of actual rainfall is +/-10% of LPA, that is, between 96-104% of LPA
  • Below normal, when departure of actual rainfall is less than 10% of LPA, that is 90-96% of LPA
  • Above normal, when actual rainfall is 104-110% of LPA
  • Deficient, when departure of actual rainfall is less than 90% of LPA
  • Excess, when the departure of actual rainfall is more than 110% of LPA
5. About India Meteorological Department
  • The beginnings of meteorology in India can be traced to ancient times. Early philosophical writings of the 3000 B.C. era, such as the Upanishadas, contain serious discussion about the processes of cloud formation and rain and the seasonal cycles caused by the movement of earth round the sun
  • Varahamihira's classical work, the Brihatsamhita, written around 500 A.D., provides a clear evidence that a deep knowledge of atmospheric processes existed even in those times
  • It was understood that rains come from the sun (Adityat Jayate Vrishti) and that good rainfall in the rainy season was the key to bountiful agriculture and food for the people
  • Kautilya's Arthashastra contains records of scientific measurements of rainfall and its application to the country's revenue and relief work. Kalidasa in his epic, 'Meghdoot', written around the seventh century, even mentions the date of onset of the monsoon over central India and traces the path of the monsoon clouds
  • Meteorology, as we perceive it now, may be said to have had its firm scientific foundation in the 17th century after the invention of the thermometer and the barometer and the formulation of laws governing the behaviour of atmospheric gases
  • It was in 1636 that Halley, a British scientist, published his treatise on the Indian summer monsoon, which he attributed to a seasonal reversal of winds due to the differential heating of the Asian land mass and the Indian Ocean
  • India is fortunate to have some of the oldest meteorological observatories of the world. The British East India Company established several such stations, for example, those at Calcutta in 1785 and Madras (now Chennai) in 1796 for studying the weather and climate of India
  • The Asiatic Society of Bengal founded in 1784 at Calcutta, and in 1804 at Bombay (now Mumbai), promoted scientific studies in meteorology in India
  • A disastrous tropical cyclone struck Calcutta in 1864 and this was followed by failures of the monsoon rains in 1866 and 1871
  • In the year 1875, the Government of India established the India Meteorological Department, bringing all meteorological work in the country under a central authority
  • The first Director General of Observatories was Sir John Eliot who was appointed in May 1889 at Calcutta headquarters
  • The headquarters of IMD were later shifted to Shimla, then to Poona (now Pune) and finally to New Delhi
  • From a modest beginning in 1875, IMD has progressively expanded its infrastructure for meteorological observations, communications, forecasting and weather services and it has achieved a parallel scientific growth
  • IMD has always used contemporary technology. In the telegraph age, it made extensive use of weather telegrams for collecting observational data and sending warnings
  • Later IMD became the first organisation in India to have a message-switching computer for supporting its global data exchange.
  • One of the first few electronic computers introduced in the country was provided to IMD for scientific applications in meteorology
  • India was the first developing country in the world to have its own geostationary satellite, INSAT, for continuous weather monitoring of this part of the globe and particularly for cyclone warning
  • IMD has continuously ventured into new areas of application and service and steadily built upon its infrastructure in its history of 140 years
  • It has simultaneously nurtured the growth of meteorology and atmospheric science in India. Today, meteorology in India is poised at the threshold of an exciting future
For Prelims: IMD, Long Period Average, El Nino, La Nino
For Mains: 1.What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the won population residing in Monsoon Asia? (UPSC GS 1 2017
Previous Year Questions:
1.La Nina is suspected to have caused recent floods in Australia. How is La Nina different from El Nino? (UPSC 2011 )
  1. La Nina is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperature in equatorial Indian Ocean whereas El Nino is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperature in the equatorial Pacific Ocean.
  2. El Nino has adverse effect on south-west monsoon of India, but La Nina has no effect on monsoon climate.
  3. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2
Answer (D)
2.The seasonal reversal of winds is the typical characteristic of (UPSC 2014 )
A. Equatorial climate
B. Mediterranean climate
C. Monsoon climate
D. All of the above climates
Answer (C)
3.With reference to ‘Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)’ sometimes mentioned in the news while forecasting Indian monsoon, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2017 Prelims)
  1. IOD phenomenon is characterized by a difference in sea surface temperature between the tropical Western Indian Ocean and the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean.
  2. An IOD phenomenon can influence an El Nino’s impact on the monsoon.Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2
Answer (B)
4.Consider the following statements: (2015)
  1. The winds which blow between 30 N and 60 S latitudes throughout the year are known as westerlies.
  2. The moist air masses that cause winter rains in the North Western region of India are part of westerlies.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2
Answer (B)
Source: India Meteorological Department, indianexpress

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