Current Affair




1. Context

A Delhi Pollution Control Committee (DPCC) report on water quality at eight points of the Yamuna in Delhi based on samples collected on August 3 indicates the presence of dissolved oxygen at all eight points, but less than the desired levels.

2. What is National Green Tribunal (NGT)?

  • The National Green Tribunal (NGT) is a specialized judicial body established in India to handle cases related to environmental protection and conservation.
  • It was established under the National Green Tribunal Act, of  2010, and its primary objective is to effectively and expeditiously address environmental disputes and promote sustainable development.
  • With the establishment of the NGT, India became the third country in the world to set up a specialized environmental tribunal, only after Australia and New Zealand, and the first developing country to do so.
  • NGT is mandated to make disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of the filing of the same.
  • The NGT has five places of sittings, New Delhi is the Principal place of sitting, and Bhopal, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai are the other four.

3. Structure of the National Green Tribunal (NGT)

  • Chairperson: The NGT is headed by a full-time Chairperson who is a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India. The Chairperson is responsible for the overall administration and functioning of the tribunal.
  • Judicial Members: The NGT consists of judicial members who are retired judges of either the Supreme Court or a High Court. These members have extensive legal knowledge and experience in handling environmental matters.
  • Expert Members: The tribunal also includes expert members who possess expertise in areas such as environmental science, ecology, hydrology, and forestry. These members provide valuable technical insights and guidance in the resolution of environmental disputes.
  • The NGT is organized into multiple benches located across different regions of India. These benches are responsible for hearing cases specific to their respective jurisdictions. Each bench is headed by a judicial member and consists of one or more expert members, as required.

4. What are the Important Landmark Judgements of NGT?

The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has delivered several landmark judgments that have had a significant impact on environmental protection and conservation in India. Here are some of the important landmark judgments delivered by the NGT:

  • Vardhaman Kaushik v. Union of India (2013): This case dealt with the issue of groundwater depletion due to illegal extraction by industries in Uttar Pradesh. The NGT directed the closure of industries that were extracting groundwater without proper permissions and ordered the payment of compensation for environmental damage caused.
  • Alembic Pharmaceuticals Ltd. v. Rohit Prajapati & Ors. (2014): In this case, the NGT ordered the closure of an industrial unit in Gujarat for releasing untreated effluents into a water body, causing pollution and harm to the environment and public health.
  • M.C. Mehta v. Union of India (2014): The NGT issued a landmark judgment in this case regarding the pollution of the Yamuna River. It directed several measures to clean and rejuvenate the river, including the establishment of sewage treatment plants and the regulation of industries contributing to pollution.
  • Subhash Chandra Sharma v. Union of India (2015): This case focused on the issue of air pollution caused by solid waste burning in open areas. The NGT imposed a ban on burning waste in open spaces and directed municipal authorities to take measures to manage waste effectively.
  • Raghu Nath Sharma v. State of Himachal Pradesh (2016): The NGT ordered the closure of illegal hotels and structures in the eco-sensitive Rohtang Pass area of Himachal Pradesh to protect the fragile Himalayan ecosystem.
  • Yamuna Muktikaran Abhiyan v. Union of India (2017): This case dealt with the rejuvenation of the Yamuna River and led to the NGT issuing directions to clean and restore the river, including measures to prevent encroachments and pollution.
  • M.C. Mehta v. Union of India (2017): The NGT banned the use of disposable plastic in Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR) and directed authorities to take steps to prevent the use and sale of such plastic.
  • Shailesh Singh v. Hotel Holiday Regency (2019): In this case, the NGT imposed heavy fines on a hotel in Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, for causing air pollution by running diesel generators without proper emission control measures.
  • Subhash Chandran vs. Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (2020): This judgment highlighted the importance of safeguarding coastal areas and wetlands from unauthorized construction and development activities, emphasizing the need for stringent environmental norms.
  • In Re: Report by Comptroller and Auditor General of India (2021): The NGT directed the formulation of guidelines for the regulation of groundwater extraction and management to prevent overexploitation and depletion.

5. What is a dissolved oxygen level?

  • Dissolved oxygen (DO) level refers to the concentration of oxygen gas (O2) that is dissolved in a liquid, typically water.
  • It is a crucial parameter in aquatic ecosystems as it directly affects the survival and well-being of aquatic organisms.
  • In natural water bodies like lakes, rivers, and oceans, oxygen dissolves from the atmosphere through processes such as diffusion and aeration.
  • Aquatic plants, algae, and phytoplankton also contribute to the production of oxygen through photosynthesis. However, the level of dissolved oxygen can fluctuate based on various factors, including temperature, altitude, water flow, pollution, and organic matter decomposition.
  • Dissolved oxygen is essential for aquatic organisms because they rely on it for their respiration process, similar to how animals breathe oxygen from the air.
  • Insufficient levels of dissolved oxygen can lead to hypoxia, a condition where organisms are deprived of the oxygen they need to survive. This can result in stress, reduced growth, reproductive issues, and even mortality in aquatic species.

Different species of aquatic organisms have varying tolerance levels for dissolved oxygen. For example:

  • Fish and other aquatic animals often require dissolved oxygen levels between 4 to 6 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to thrive.
  • Some species of fish, insects, and other aquatic organisms can tolerate lower levels of dissolved oxygen, even below 2 mg/L, while others require higher concentrations.

6. What are chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand?

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD):

  • COD is a measure of the amount of oxygen required to chemically oxidize and break down organic and inorganic substances present in water.
  • It provides an indication of the total amount of pollutants that can be chemically oxidized by a strong oxidizing agent. COD is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of oxygen consumed.
  • COD is useful in assessing the overall pollution load in a water sample, including both biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.
  • It is commonly used for industrial wastewater monitoring, as it provides a rapid estimation of the organic content and potential pollution levels. However, COD does not differentiate between different types of pollutants or indicate the potential impact on aquatic life.

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD):

  • BOD measures the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed by microorganisms (bacteria) during the biological degradation of organic matter in water.
  • It is a key indicator of the level of biodegradable organic pollutants present in water. BOD is expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/L) of oxygen consumed over a specific time period, usually 5 days (BODâ‚…).
  • BOD is particularly important in assessing the impact of organic pollution on aquatic ecosystems.
  • High BOD levels indicate that a water body may have a significant amount of organic pollutants, which can lead to oxygen depletion as microorganisms break down the organic matter. This oxygen depletion, known as hypoxia, can harm aquatic organisms and disrupt the ecological balance of the water body.

Comparing BOD and COD:

  • BOD primarily measures the biologically degradable organic matter and provides information about the potential impact on aquatic life.
  • COD measures both biologically and chemically degradable pollutants, giving an indication of the overall pollution load and oxygen demand.
  • BOD is a more specific and ecologically relevant parameter, but it takes longer to determine (5 days), while COD can be measured more quickly.
For Prelims: National Green Tribunal (NGT), National Green Tribunal Act, of  2010, Dissolved oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen demand (COD), and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD).
For Mains: 1. Discuss the significance of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) as critical indicators for assessing water pollution and quality. (250 Words)

Previous year Question

1. How is the National Green Tribunal (NGT) different from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)? (UPSC 2018)
1. The NGT has been established by an Act whereas the CPCB has been created by the executive order of the Government.
2. The NGT provides environmental justice and helps reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts whereas the CPCB promotes cleanliness of streams and wells, and aims to improve the quality of air in the country.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. Both 1 and 2
D. Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: B
2. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 was enacted in consonance with which of the following provisions of the Constitution of India? (UPSC 2012)
1. Right of a healthy environment, construed as a part of the Right to life under Article 21
2. Provision of grants for raising the level of administration in the Scheduled Areas for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes under Article 275(1)
3. Powers and functions of Gram Sabha as mentioned under Article 243(A)
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
A. 1 only
B. 2 and 3 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3
Answer: A
Source: The Indian Express


1. Context 

  • The Indian government is set to launch the PM Vishwakarma Yojana on the occasion of Vishwakarma Jayanti, observed on September 17.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the scheme during his Independence Day address, highlighting its focus on individuals skilled in traditional craftsmanship, especially from the Other Backward Classes (OBC) community.

2. About Vishwakarma Yojana

  • The Vishwakarma Yojana aims to uplift a range of traditional industries including weaving, goldsmithing, blacksmithing, laundry work, and barbering.
  • This scheme is designed to strengthen and empower artisans and craftsmen engaged in traditional industries, particularly those associated with the Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector.
  • An initial allocation of approximately Rs 13-15 thousand crore will kickstart the scheme.
  • This initiative was proposed in the current year's budget with the primary goal of enhancing the quality, scale, and reach of products crafted by traditional artisans and integrating them into the broader MSME value chain.

3. Objectives of the Scheme

The scheme is envisioned as a comprehensive Central Sector Scheme with a two-fold objective:

  1. Preserving the Guru-Shishya Parampara (the age-old tradition of skills being passed down through generations within families) and
  2. Elevating artisans and craftsmen involved in manual trades.
Image Source: Twitter 

4. Key Highlights of the PM Vishwakarma Scheme

Financial Provision: The scheme is backed by a substantial budgetary allocation of Rs 13,000 crore, underscoring the government's commitment to provide robust financial support to traditional artisans.

Recognition and ID: Artisans and craftsmen will receive formal recognition through the prestigious PM Vishwakarma certificate and an official identification card. This acknowledgement validates their skills and contributions to the nation's cultural and economic landscape.

Credit Support: The scheme offers access to credit support, including a first-tranche loan of up to Rs 1 lakh and a second-tranche loan of up to Rs 2 lakh, with a favourable interest rate of 5%.

Skill Upgradation: To enhance their expertise, artisans will participate in skill upgradation programs encompassing both basic and advanced training. During training, participants will receive a stipend of Rs 500 per day.

Modern Tools and Incentives: Beneficiaries will receive financial assistance of up to Rs 15,000 to acquire modern tools, enhancing the efficiency and quality of their craftwork.

Digital Transactions and Marketing: The scheme encourages artisans to adopt modern practices, including digital transactions and marketing strategies, thereby linking them with broader markets and increasing their reach and revenue potential.

5. The Way Forward

  • This initiative aims to rejuvenate and empower traditional trades that form the backbone of rural economies.
  • By bridging the gap between age-old craftsmanship and modern economic realities, the PM Vishwakarma Yojana is poised to transform the lives of countless artisans, provide them with new opportunities, and preserve India's rich cultural heritage.
For Prelims: PM Vishwakarma Yojana, MSME sector, Vishwakarma Jayanti,  Other Backward Classes, 
For Mains:
1. Explain how does PM Vishwakarma Yojana contribute to preserving India's cultural heritage while integrating traditional craftsmanship into the contemporary economic landscape? (250 Words) 
Previous Year Questions
1. The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was formed by the insertion of Article ______ in the Constitution of India. This question was previously asked in (SSC CGL 2020)
A. 328B                      B. 338A                         C. 338B                     D. 328A
Answer: C
 Source: The Financial Express



1. Context

The Union Cabinet on Wednesday approved a slew of schemes ranging from the PM-eBus Sewa for augmenting city bus operations to seven multi-tracking projects of the Indian Railways worth Rs 32,500 crore.

2. PM e-Bus Sewa

  • The Union Cabinet has approved the PM e-Bus Sewa initiative to enhance green mobility by deploying 10,000 electric buses in 169 cities through a public-private partnership model.
  • The 'Green Urban Mobility Initiative' of the scheme will update infrastructure and Automated Fare Collection Systems in 181 cities.
  • The scheme focuses on cities with a population of 3 lahks and above, with a total estimated cost of Rs 57,613 crore, including Rs 20,000 crore in central government support.

3. PM Vishwakarma Scheme

  • PM Modi's Independence Day scheme offers subsidized loans up to Rs 2 lakh to traditional artisans like weavers, goldsmiths, blacksmiths, laundry workers, and barbers.
  • They'll receive Rs 1 lakh in the first tranche and Rs 2 lakh in the second, at a low-interest rate of 5%.
  • The launch is set for September 17 with a budget of Rs 13,000 crores on Vishwakarma Jayanti.

4. Seven Projects of Indian Railways

  • The Union Cabinet approved 7 multi-tracking projects of the Ministry of Railways with an estimated cost of Rs 32,500 crores.
  • The projects will be fully funded by the Central Government and will cover 39 districts in 9 states of the country (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh & West Bengal).
  • The proposed projects aim to increase the existing network of Indian Railways by
    2339 km.
  • They also aim to boost the existing line capacity, smoothen train operations, reduce congestion, and facilitate ease of traveling and transportation.

5. Extension of Digital India Programme

  • Union Cabinet greenlights Digital India project extension with Rs 14,903 crore outlay.
  • Plan targets upskilling 6.25 lakh IT pros, and training 2.65 lakh in info security.
  • 'Bhashini' AI translation tool expands to 22 languages, 9 supercomputers added to National Super Computer Mission.
  • 1,200 startups in Tier 2/3 cities supported, DigiLocker expanded to MSMEs for digital document verification.

6. What is the e-mobility policy in India?

India does not have a single comprehensive e-mobility policy, but rather various initiatives, incentives, and guidelines aimed at promoting electric mobility. These initiatives are driven by both central and state governments and are often focused on reducing pollution, and oil imports, and promoting sustainable transportation. The specific details and policies may have evolved since then, but here are some key elements that were part of India's e-mobility efforts:

  • FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles) Scheme: Launched by the Indian government, this scheme provides incentives and subsidies to manufacturers and buyers of electric vehicles (EVs) to promote their adoption. It covers various types of EVs, including two-wheelers, three-wheelers, and buses.
  • Incentives for EV Buyers: Various states in India offer incentives such as subsidies, reduced road taxes, and registration fees for electric vehicle buyers to make EVs more affordable.
  • Charging Infrastructure: The government is working to establish a network of electric vehicle charging stations across the country to address "range anxiety" and encourage more people to adopt EVs.
  • Import Duty Reduction: There have been discussions about reducing import duties on key components used in electric vehicles to encourage domestic manufacturing and reduce costs.
  • Research and Development Support: The government has been providing research and development incentives to encourage innovation and technology development in the field of electric mobility.

7. What is the Public Private Partnership (PPP) model?

The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model is a collaborative arrangement between a public sector entity (typically a government agency or authority) and a private sector entity (a company or consortium of companies) for the purpose of jointly delivering public infrastructure or services. In a PPP, both sectors share responsibilities, risks, and rewards in a project or initiative.

Key characteristics of the PPP model include:

  • Shared Responsibilities: Under a PPP, the public and private sectors collaborate to jointly plan, design, finance, implement, operate, and maintain a project or service. Each party brings its strengths to the partnership: the public sector provides regulatory oversight, public interest representation, and access to public funds, while the private sector contributes expertise, innovation, and funding.
  • Risk Sharing: Risks associated with the project, such as financial, operational, and construction risks, are shared between the public and private sectors. This encourages efficient risk management and can attract private investment.
  • Long-Term Contracts: PPPs often involve long-term contractual agreements between the public and private sectors, spanning multiple years or even decades. These contracts outline the roles, responsibilities, performance standards, and financial arrangements of both parties.
  • Innovation and Efficiency: The private sector's expertise and profit motive can lead to innovations in project design, construction, and operation, potentially improving efficiency and quality.
  • Funding Arrangements: In many PPPs, the private sector contributes a significant portion of the funding required for the project. This reduces the burden on the public sector's budget and allows governments to allocate resources to other essential services.

8. What are the types of PPP?

Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) can take various forms and structures, depending on the nature of the project, the level of risk-sharing, the financial arrangements, and the specific goals of the partnership. Some common types of PPP models include:

  • Concession Contracts: In this model, a private company or consortium is granted the right to operate, maintain, and potentially finance a public infrastructure project (such as a toll road, airport, or port) for a specific period. The private entity is often responsible for revenue collection and recoups its investment through user fees or charges.
  • Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT): In a BOT arrangement, the private sector designs, finances, builds, and operates a project (e.g., a power plant or a water treatment facility) for a defined period. At the end of the concession period, ownership and operation of the project are transferred back to the public sector.
  • Build-Own-Operate (BOO): Similar to BOT, in a BOO model, the private sector designs, finances, builds, owns, and operates the infrastructure project. Unlike BOT, there is no explicit requirement to transfer ownership back to the public sector.
  • Build-Lease-Transfer (BLT): Under this model, the private sector finances and constructs a project and then leases it to the public sector for a specified period. At the end of the lease term, ownership may be transferred to the public sector.
  • Build-Transfer (BT): In a BT arrangement, the private sector designs and constructs the project, transferring ownership to the public sector upon completion. However, operation and maintenance may remain with the private sector.
  • Design-Build-Operate (DBO): In a DBO model, the private sector is responsible for designing, constructing, and operating the project. Financing may also be included in some cases.
  • Service Contracts: Under a service contract, the private sector provides specific services related to a public facility or service, such as maintenance, operation, or management. Ownership typically remains with the public sector.
  • Management Contracts: In a management contract, the private sector is responsible for the day-to-day management and operation of a public asset, such as a sports stadium or convention center. Ownership and financial risk remain with the public sector.
  • Joint Ventures: In a joint venture, both public and private sector entities collaborate to establish a new entity for the purpose of developing, operating, and managing a project. Risks and rewards are shared between the partners.
For Prelims: PM e-Bus Sewa, PM Vishwakarma Scheme, Digital India Programme, FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles), Public-Private Partnership (PPP), Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT), Build-Own-Operate (BOO), and Build-Lease-Transfer (BLT).
For Mains: 1. Discuss the various types of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) models and their significance in promoting infrastructure development and service delivery. (250 words).

Previous year Question

1. With reference to 'fuel cells' in which hydrogen-rich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements: (UPSC 2015)
1. If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the fuel cell emits heat and water as by-products.
2. Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers.
3. Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC)
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
A. 1 only
B. 2 and 3 only
C. 1 and 3 only
D. 1, 2 and 3
Answer: A
Source: The Hindu


1. Context

A day before he died, Vivek Raj, 35, a Dalit design graduate from NIFT filed a complaint against his managers at private apparel firm Lifestyle International in Bengaluru stating that he had been subjected to caste abuse at his workplace.

2. About Dalits

  • Dalits are the lowest social group in the Indian caste system. The term "Dalit" means "broken" or "oppressed".
  • They were previously known as "untouchables" because they were considered to be ritually impure and were subjected to discrimination and segregation.
  • Dalits make up about 16% of India's population or over 200 million people.
  • They are found in all parts of India but are concentrated in the southern and western states.

3. Why are they called Dalits?

  • The term "Dalit" was first used in the 1930s by Dr B.R. Ambedkar, a Dalit leader and social reformer.
  • He used the term to challenge the idea that Dalits were "untouchable" and to assert their right to equality.
  • The term "Dalit" has been adopted by many Dalits as a way of self-identification.
  • It is a term of pride and empowerment, and it reflects the Dalits' determination to overcome the discrimination they face.

4. Genesis of the term ‘Dalit’

  • The term "Dalit" is derived from the Sanskrit word "dal", which means "broken" or "crushed".
  • It was first used in the 1930s by a group of activists who wanted to reclaim the term "untouchable" and give it a positive meaning.
  • They argued that Dalits were not "untouchable" but were simply oppressed and marginalized.
  • The term "Dalit" has since been adopted by many Dalits themselves, and it is now the most widely used term to refer to them.

5. About Sanskritization

Sanskritization: Sanskritization is a process of social mobility within the Hindu caste system. It involves adopting the customs, beliefs, and practices of the higher castes. This can include things like changing one's diet, language, and marriage practices. 

There are many different ways in which Sanskritization can be achieved. Some common practices include:

  • Changing one's name to a Sanskritic name
  • Giving up one's traditional occupation and taking up a more respectable occupation
  • Adopting a vegetarian diet
  • Learning Sanskrit and other classical Hindu texts
  • Participating in Hindu religious rituals and festivals
Sanskritization is not always successful. In some cases, lower castes may be prevented from adopting the customs and practices of the upper castes. In other cases, the upper castes may resist the efforts of lower castes to Sanskritize.

Conversion: Conversion is the process of changing one's religion. It can be a voluntary or involuntary process, and it can be motivated by a variety of factors, such as religious beliefs, social status, or economic opportunity.

The main difference between conversion and Sanskritization is that conversion involves a change in religion, while Sanskritization does not.

Conversion is also typically a more voluntary process than Sanskritization, which is often seen as a way to improve one's social status.

6. Sanskritization with an example.

  • Sanskritization is the process of adopting the customs and practices of the upper castes in the Hindu caste system.
  • This can involve things like changing one's name, giving up one's traditional occupation, and adopting a vegetarian diet.
  • For example, a Dalit person might convert to Hinduism and adopt the practices of the higher castes, such as eating vegetarian food and speaking Sanskrit. This would allow them to move up in the caste system and gain more social status.
  • Sanskritization is a complex process with its own advantages and disadvantages.
  • On the one hand, it can help Dalits to improve their social status and gain access to better opportunities.
  • On the other hand, it can also be seen as a form of assimilation and cultural loss.

7. Who gave Sanskritization concept?

  • The concept of Sanskritization was first proposed by M. N. Srinivas, an Indian sociologist.
  • He argued that Sanskritization is a way for lower castes to improve their social status and gain more power.
  • Srinivas's concept of Sanskritization has been criticized by some scholars, who argue that it is too simplistic and does not take into account the diversity of the Indian caste system.
  • However, it remains an important concept in understanding the dynamics of social mobility in India.
For Prelims: Dailts, Susides, Sanskritization, Conversion, Caste system, untouchables,  
For Mains: 
1. Discuss the concept of "Dalit" in the context of the Indian caste system. Explain the genesis of the term "Dalit" and its significance in challenging social norms. (250 Words)
Previous Year Questions
1. The caste system of India was created for: (BARC UDC/JPA/JSK 2019) 
A. Immobility of labour
B. recognition of the dignity of labour
C. economic uplift
D. Occupational division of labour
Answer: D
2. Consider the following pairs: (UPSC 2019)
Movement/Organization                                   Leader
1. All India Anti-Untouchability League          Mahatma Gandhi
2. All India Kisan Sabha                                   Swami Sahajanand Saraswati
3. Self-Respect Movement                               E. V. Ramaswami Naicker
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
A. 1 only          B. 1 and 2 only          C.  2 and 3 only            D. 1, 2 and 3
Answer: D
Source: indianexpress


1. Context

More than one in three (36%) Indians between the ages of 15 and 34 believe unemployment is the biggest problem before the country. About one in six (16%) think it is poverty, and 13% think it is inflation.

These findings, which are part of a report released by Lokniti-CSDS , suggest that the youth identify challenges relating to the economy as the most significant facing the nation.

The report offers insights into career aspirations, job preferences, and expectations of younger Indians.

About 6% of respondents identified corruption as the most significant challenge; 4% each identified problems in education and high population.


2. Key takeaways

  • The proportion of youth identifying unemployment as the biggest problem has increased by 18 percentage points from the results of a similar survey in 2016
  • The share of those identifying price rise as the primary concern has increased by 7 percentage points
  • While the data from the 2023 survey conducted in 18 states with a sample of 9,316 respondents show unemployment as a significant concern across all economic classes, it is particularly pronounced among middle-class youth
  • Also, as many as 40% of highly educated respondents (graduate and above) identified unemployment as the most pressing concern
  • In contrast, only 27% of non-literate individuals cited unemployment as their primary concern, likely due to their greater willingness to take on a range of jobs
  • Forty-two per cent of men said unemployment was the most significant problem; among young women, this number was 31%
  • Poverty and price rise emerged as a more prominent problem for youth from lower economic backgrounds
  • A larger proportion of women (across economic classes) expressed concerns about price rise and poverty

table 1 csds

3. Occupational Status

  •  49%  were engaged in some form of work, 40% had full-time jobs; 9% were working part-time
  • Almost a fourth (23%) of youth with jobs were self-employed
  •  Sixteen per cent were professionals such as doctors or engineers,15% were involved in agriculture, and semi-unskilled and skilled workers made up 27% of the total
  •  Only 6% were in government jobs
  • About 20% of working youth chose their job out of an interest; an almost equal proportion (18%) took the only option they had

table 2 csds

4. Govt jobs vs Private jobs

Three out of five likes government jobs, and more than one out of four likes to have their own business

he preference for setting up an own business has grown consistently over this period — from 16% in 2007 to 27% in 2023

5. About the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS)

The Centre for the Study of Developing Societies (CSDS) is an Indian research institute for the social sciences and humanities. It was founded in 1963 by Rajni Kothari, a renowned political scientist and social scientist. The Centre is located in New Delhi, close to Delhi University

CSDS is an autonomous institution, but it is largely funded by the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), a government body. The Centre has a wide range of research programmes, covering a variety of topics, including politics, society, economics, environment, and culture. CSDS also has a number of teaching and training programmes, and it publishes a number of journals and books



Source: indianexpress


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