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APRIL2023 YOJANA COMPILATION
 

1.Opportunities for Youth in the Start-up Ecosystem

Introduction

India is home to one of the largest youth populations in the world. According to the United Nations, India has over 356 million young people aged between 10-24 years, which accounts for over 27% of the country’s total population.  In contrast, developed countries such as the United States and Japan have significantly smaller youth populations, with 64 million and 22 million young people, respectively. This demographic advantage presents several opportunities for the Indian start-up ecosystem.

Establishing Start-up in India

The Government of India under the leadership of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi Ji is providing all the necessary Policy, institutional, and regulatory framework support to the start-up in the country.

New India: Opportunities for Youth

The Union government has launched several initiatives to promote entrepreneurship and innovation in the country.  The Start-up India initiative, launched in 2016, aims to create a conducive environment for start-ups to thrive in India. 

The initiative provides several benefits to start-ups, including tax exemptions, access to funding, and simplified regulations.

Out of the $950 billion in FDI received since independence, $532 billion came since 2015 from 162 countries in 61 sectors to the 31 states & UTs.  With the initiatives like Digital India, broadband connectivity in villages drove the growth of the start-up ecosystem.

‘MAARG’ portal is helping innovators and start-ups from remote areas to get access to crucial opportunities and funding ecosystems. 

Start-ups catering to Market Demands

According to Boston Consulting Group Study, every Indian born after 2000 will spread around two hundred and forty thousand dollars in their lifetime. If you multiply this number by 1.6 billion, then you get $384 trillion. That is the sheer size and magnitude of the Indian domestic market and demands by 2047.

Scope in Knowledge-based Digital Economy

In the Union Budget 2023-24, the Union Finance Minister talked about making India a knowledge-based digital economy.  The Government of India is moving towards 100 percent digitization of government processes to make them more citizen-centric. 

Under this, a Digital Public Infrastructure will be developed for the farmers of the country. ICMR labs will also be made available to private medical colleges and private sector R&D companies to promote health-based research. 

A new program will be started through the Centre of Excellence to promote research and innovation in pharmaceuticals. District Institutes of Education and Training Centres will be developed for revolutionary change in the training of teachers. A National Digital Library will also be built.

Under the Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana skills and training will be given for artificial intelligence, coding, and 3D printing Things.

National Logistics Policy: A Boon for Start-ups

India recently launched its National Logistics Policy in 2022, which aims to create an integrated and efficient logistics ecosystem in the country.  The policy has several provisions that could benefit start-ups in the logistics sector. 

For instance, it encourages the development of logistics parks and multimodal logistics hubs, which could provide start-ups with access to better infrastructure and facilities.  It also promotes the use of technology in logistics operations, which could help start-ups, streamline their processes and reduce costs.

The policy also emphasizes the importance of skill development and training for the logistics sector, which could benefit start-ups by providing them with a pool of trained professionals to hire from.

India-Knowledge and Content Hub of the World

Along with Sports, our yoga spirituality, Music-cinema, philosophy- literature, etc., also have the power to establish Indian hegemony in the whole world. Today India’s yoga day and International millets day are the most popular among the programs celebrated by the United Nations. That is why; we must develop ways of fully leveraging the potential of an Indian soft power through start-up India.

Start-ups in Defence and Space Sectors

India’s defense and space sector is a critical area of national importance, and the government has been actively promoting entrepreneurship in this field through various initiatives.  Start-ups in the defense and space sector can play a significant role in innovation, technology development, and job creation.

One of the key initiatives is the Defense India Start-up Challenge (DISC), which aims to encourage start-ups to come up with innovative solutions to meet the requirements of the defense sector. 

Under the DISC program, start-ups can get funding, mentoring, and other support from the government to develop their products and services. The government has also launched the Space Entrepreneurship and Enterprise Development (SEED) program to support start-ups in the space sector. 

The program provides funding and other support to start-ups working on space-related technologies and applications. In addition, the government has established a Defense Innovation Fund (DIF) to provide funding and other support to start-ups working on innovative solutions in the defense sector. 

The fund aims to promote research and development in critical technology areas such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and autonomous systems. Several start-ups have already made significant progress in the defense and space sector in India. 

For instance, AgniKul Cosmos, a Chennai-based start-up, is working on developing low-cost launch vehicles for small satellites.  Another start-up, Tonbo imaging, is working on developing advanced imaging and sensing technologies for defense and security applications.

 

 2.Startup India Action plan: Foundation of Indian startup Ecosystem

Introduction

From about 500 startups in 2016 to over 92,000 recognised startups in February 2023.

India’s startup ecosystem growth story has become a globally renowned case of structured development and evolution of an ecosystem and community. 

In 2023, India has at least one recognised startup in every State and UT spread across over 660 districts and diversified in more than 55 sectors. 

About 47% of recognised startups have at least one woman director which highlights the inclusiveness and diversity of the Indian startup ecosystem.

Differentiated approach

Recognising the potential and importance of the startup ecosystem in the economic growth of the country, the Hon'ble Prime Minister on 16 January 2016 unveiled the Startup India Action Plan 2016. 

The complex opportunity of the Indian startup ecosystem lies in the standard lifecycle of a startup; ideation, validation, early traction and scaling each of these stages have a different set of stakeholders or beneficiaries. 

Accordingly, the key pillars of the Startup India Action Plan were envisaged to be executed in a phased manner with differentiated approaches. 

The Action Plan comprises 19 action items spanning areas such as ‘Simplification and handholding’, ‘Funding support and incentives’, and ‘Industry-academia partnership and incubation’.

The action plan sets the tone for recognising the startup as a distinct economic pillar and laid out key interventions to be executed in a phased manner for the ecosystem at large.

Key features of the action plan include, Simplification and Handholding

The government pledged to simplify the regulatory environment for startups, reducing the time and cost of compliance with a startup hub to provide a single-point contact for startups to access information on various schemes and services.

Funding Support and Incentives

A fund with an initial corpus of INR 2,500 crore was set up to provide funding support for startups

Industry-Academia Partnership and Incubation

The government promoted industry-academia partnerships to foster innovation and support the creation of incubation centres to provide physical infrastructure, mentorship, and other support services for startups.

Innovation and Entrepreneurship Development Programs

The government created entrepreneurship development programs to help entrepreneurs build the skills and knowledge they need to succeed. 

Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Protection

 The government provides a legal support system to help startups protect their intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks, and copyrights.

India’s G20 Presidency

With India’s G20 Presidency, we have to opportunity to not only showcase our capabilities to the world but also pursue the unity of purpose and unity of action.

The institutionalization of the Startup20 Engagement Group within G20 provides us with another opportunity to lead from the front, unite the world to support the entrepreneurship ecosystem and take our startups to a global stage.

The startup ecosystem is evolving rapidly, driving the country’s growth phase through the digital transformation of sections of the economy encouraging private investment, transitioning to clean energy and providing innovative solutions.

The collaborative efforts of the ecosystem will play a paramount role in further developing an enabling and inviting ecosystem which empowers Indian thinkers and innovators in their journey from being job seekers to job creators.

 

3.A NEW DAWN FOR THE GLOBAL STARTUP ECOSYSTEM UNDER INDIA’S G20 PRESIDENCY

Introduction

  • With India's G20 presidency, the global startup ecosystem is on the cusp of a new dawn as the Global Twenty has agreed to India's proposal to create the Startup20 Engagement Group. It must be acknowledged that this is not the first-time startups are on the G20 agenda.
  • What makes this year unique is that startups have never had their own engagement group that will carry their voice to the Global Twenty heads of state in the form of an official policy Communique.

Goals of Startup20

 The overarching goal of Startup20 is to propose a policy framework that achieves two objectives simultaneously: 

  • harmonisation of global startup ecosystems to facilitate their collaboration, and
  • doing so without compromising the national ecosystems ‘freedom to grow in whatever way they see fit.

 

  • To accomplish its goals, Startup20 has formed three Task Forces that focus on critical areas vital to the development of a thriving startup ecosystem. Foundation and Alliances, Finance, and Inclusion and Sustainability are among the Task Forces.

Startup 20×

 In addition to welcoming the G20 economies to Startup20, the unique, bottomup, and generative platform, Startup20x was launched.  Startup20x is designed to harness such bottom-up voices and, in addition to the expert-led forum that the Task Forces will provide, inform global startup policy. It will achieve this goal by inviting startup ecosystems around the world to co-brand and share their content on a global scale. To distribute the content, the platform has partnered with several channels.

Conclusion

 Through global cooperation, Startup20 aspires to be in a position where it has the capacity to advocate for regulatory reforms at the international level, encouraging member countries to make it easier for startups to do business, and startups to attract talent, capital, and opportunities across global economies. 

 

 4.AGRI STARTUPS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

Introduction

Agri startups shall play a critical role in making India a knowledge-based and technology-driven economy.  Due to a very unique agricultural ecosystem, there are vast potential and ample opportunities for the development of agri-startups. 

India’s arable land area of 156, 06 million hectares (2019) is the world’s second-largest after the United States. It has an incredible diversity of climate and soil types (15 agro-climatic zones, 8 major soil types), making it suitable for growing a wide range of field crops, fruits, vegetables, and so on. 

India is currently the world’s largest producer of milk, pulses, millets, and jute, as well as the world’s second-largest producer of rice, wheat, and fruits and vegetables. 

Problems and Challenges in Agricultural Sector

India has recently emerged as a leading exporter of agricultural and livestock products. 

However, the agricultural sector is also lacking several complex problems and challenges. 

The shrinking size of operational landholdings is a major source of concern, as small landholdings raise transaction costs, making it difficult to adapt to several modern technologies. 

It also becomes difficult to use inputs and natural resources efficiently; many farmers do not have easy access to timely information about sod, weather, markets, advisories, and other topics. 

In general, such issues result in higher costs of cultivation, wastage of resources, crop losses and a smaller scale of production. 

Benefits of Agri-startups

Agri-startups strive to provide solutions through innovations, technology interventions or business models specific to the needs of farmers mostly on a real-time basis. As a result of the Government of India’s on-going efforts, our country now has 3,000 agri-startups operating in various agricultural fields and allied sectors.

About Agri Startups

Startup India Action Plan 2016 resulted in a massive increase in the creation of startups across almost every industry, including agriculture.

In terms of geographical distribution, nearly 60% of agri-startups are based primarily in Tier l and II cities in a few states. 

Agri-startups are further classified based on their focus areas, such as agri-tech, animal husbandry, precision farming, organic agriculture, mechanics, advisories, etc.

Categories

Agri startups typically operate at one or more stages of the agricultural value chain and on this basis have been classified into seven broad categories:

  1. Providing output market linkages
  2. Facilitating input supply
  3. Enabling mechanisation and irrigation
  4. Offering a financial solution (credit and insurance); helping quality maintenance and traceability
  5. Post-harvest management; logistic services (warehousing and cold chains); and
  6. Supporting animal husbandry activities.

These startups provide solutions to farmers by utilising various types of innovations and technologies.

They create products and/or services to improve efficiency at various stages of the value chain, such as infrastructure farm automation, precision agriculture, input delivery, advisory market linkages, and so on. 

In recent years, some notable business models in the agricultural space have emerged, including the ‘farm-to-fork supply chain model, loT (Internet of Things) or big data-led innovation model, and the upstream marketplace model. 

Policies and Promotions

The Government of India has launched several initiatives to facilitate and promote agri-startups, and to create a robust ecosystem for the creation and development of agri-startups.

The Agri-Business Incubator (ABIs) Centres were established in various parts of the country, primarily in R&D institutions, in 2015-16. 

ABIs identify and mobilise emerging entrepreneurs, facilitating their growth through a variety of services including shared facilities (workspaces, infrastructure, etc.) and equipment, business development, technology, finance, mentoring, and networking. 

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana 

In India, there are over 100 agri-focused incubators, most of which are housed in academic and research institutions such as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and agricultural universities, Startup India, the Atal Innovation Mission, the Department of Science and Technology (DST), and the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare also support these incubators.

In 2019-20, the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation, and Farmers Welfare has added a new component called the ‘Innovation and Agri-Entrepreneurship Department’ to its flagship scheme. the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY-RAFTAAR). 

Under this programme, a selected startup is eligible for maximum financial assistance of Rs. 5 lakhs at the ideal pre-seed stage and a maximum financial assistance of Rs. 25 lakhs at the seed stage.

The Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare hosts an annual event called ‘Agri-Hackathon,’ where agri-startups can provide viable and innovative solutions to identified challenges and problems. As the apex body of agricultural R&D, ICAR has taken the lead by establishing 50 Agri-Business incubators in institutes across the country. 

ICAR­-ABIs, which were launched under the National Agriculture Innovation Fund project (2016-17), provide technical support and incubation services to startups providing solutions in various fields of agriculture and allied sectors. 

The Department of Science and Technology has set up 25 Technology Innovation Hubs (TIH) in premier institutes of national importance across the country. 

Since 2016, the DST has been implementing an umbrella programme called NIDHI (National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations) to promote S&T-based entrepreneurship and startup ecosystems in the country. 

NIDHI operates through its various components which are designed to support ideators and innovators from the beginning of their journey and link them to the entire market value chain. 

For example, NIDHI-PRAYAS provides technical and financial support to innovators and startups from the idea stage to the prototype stage.

Recent policies

Engagement of agri-tech startups and companies in public-private partnerships was announced for the Union Budget 2022-23 to deliver the latest technology education to farmers and aid in implementation. 

Other policies and government-sponsored funds for agri-tech startups in drones and farming as a service were also announced. 

NABARD is facilitating a fund with blended capital raised through a co-investment model to finance agri-tech startups and rural farming enterprises. This scheme provides funding to startups that support food producer organisations, farm rental services, and technology incorporation. 

The Government announced an agricultural-focused accelerator fund in the current Budget (2023-24) to encourage agri-tech startups in rural areas of the country. 

The Fund is aimed at building innovative and effective agri-tech solutions for farmers to improve access to market linkages and yields. It will also introduce cutting-edge technology to transform agricultural practices and boost productivity and profitability. 

According to the Economic Survey (2022-23), agri-tech startups have raised approximately Rs. 6600 crores from private equity investors over the last four years, representing a growth rate of more than 50% per year. 

5.Women Entrepreneurship in MSME Sector

 Introduction

According to the Registrar General of India, the work participation rate for women stands at 25 per cent which is one of the lowest in the world. Emerging reports show a growing decline in women’s participation in the workforce.  Frequent reports indicate a lack of safe and quality childcare support a major contributing reason for this decline.

In addition to this, there is a lack of infrastructural facilities for women at workplaces e,g. proper crèche facilities and their maintenance with decent infrastructure and other resources needed for the same.

The Report of the Expert Committee on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (2019), constituted by the Reserve Bank of India, has identified a lack of access to credit as one of the major constraints faced by the MSME Sector. A 2022 report by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) has identified the lack of access to credit as an important constraint being faced by women entrepreneurs in India.

Women's Participation in MSME Sector

The MSME sector offers multiple opportunities to empower women by promoting entrepreneurship and plays a crucial role in the process of economic and social development through value addition, employment generation, equitable distribution of income, and removal of regional disparities. 

Women-owned enterprises account for approximately 18.67% of the total MSMEs registered on the Udyam Registration Portal, over the last three years. Similarly, the share of women employed by the MSMEs registered on the Udyam portal, in around two and a half years, is 23.59% out of the total employment by the MSME registered units during this period.

The Ministry of MSME is continuously making efforts to encourage women’s empowerment through various interventions:

The Public Procurement Policy for Micro and Small Entrepreneurs Order, 2012 (as amended in 2018), mandates that 3% of the total annual procurement by Central Ministries/ Departments/CPSEs shall be from women-led Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). The Ministry has launched the National Scheduled Caste Scheduled Tribe Hub, to promote inclusivity and entrepreneurship.

Under the Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP), 2.59 lakh women entrepreneurs out of a total of 8.37 lakh entrepreneurs have been provided credit support with the subsidy for setting up new micro-enterprises, thereby generating employment opportunities, primarily in rural areas.

Women in Khadi and Village Industries

Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KV1C), has engaged 3.99 lakh women artisans (80%), out of a total of 4.97 lakh artisans in the country, under its Khadi Programme. 

In addition, KVIC, through its various skill development training programmes in disciplines like – Beekeeping, Pottery, Leather Goods, Fruits and Vegetable Processing, Bakery courses, Tailoring and Embroidery, Soap and Detergent making, Beautician course, etc., has been skilling women across the country. 

During the last six years, a total of 1.81 lakh women have been skilled through these programmes. In the coastal states of the country, Coir Board, under different schemes, imparts training to women workers on manufacturing quality coir products, thereby creating employment opportunities. 

Credit Facilitation

Initiatives for women-led enterprises: 

Under the Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund Trust for Micro & Small Enterprises (CGTMSE), to support Women Entrepreneurs, with effect from 1 December 2022, the concession of 10% in guarantee fee (over the normal rate) and enhanced guarantee coverage of 85% (against 75% in other cases) has been introduced in respect of loans given to women entrepreneurs. Through the Credit Guarantee Scheme for Micro & Small Enterprises, since its inception in 2000, an amount of Rs. 53,080 crores has been guaranteed in respect of loans availed by 13.29 lakh accounts of women-led MSMEs.

Artisan-Based Cluster Development:

Under the Scheme of the Fund for Regeneration of Traditional Industries (SFURTI), a special focus has been given to providing sustainable livelihood to artisans through the formation of manufacturing collectives in the traditional sector. Apart from the above, schemes of other ministries like Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY) and Stand Up India etc., help women set up their enterprises. The Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana provides opportunities for training and capacity building of prospective/ existing women entrepreneurs.

Coir Industry Programme:

In the coastal states of the country, the coir board under different schemes imparts training to women workers on the manufacturing of quality coir products, thereby creating employment opportunities. During the last five years, 21,654 women have been skilled through these programmes.

6.OPPORTUNITIES FOR MSMES IN ‘AMRIT KAAL’

 Introduction

 With the Government’s focus on economic revival and growth, the MSMEs are expected to play a crucial role in driving growth and creating employment opportunities. Also the MSMEs can leverage the Amrit Kaal by exploring new markets, embracing new technologies, and supporting key sectors such as healthcare and renewable energy. 

Scope and potential in Amrit Kaal

 Digital Transformation: The Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated the adoption of digital technologies across industries, and the MSMEs in India need to embrace this change to remain competitive.

 Export Opportunities: The Government of India has launched several schemes, such as the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) scheme and the Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS), to support the MSMEs in exporting their products and services.

Infrastructure Development: The Government of India has announced several initiatives, such as the National Infrastructure Pipeline and the Atma-nirbhar Bharat Abhiyan, to boost infrastructure development in the country.

Healthcare Sector: The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of the healthcare sector, and the MSMEs in India can leverage this opportunity by providing goods and services to support the healthcare industry.

Green Energy: The MSMEs can play a significant role in this sector by providing goods and services to support the renewable energy industry

With an increasing focus on environmental sustainability, the MSMEs that offer eco-friendly products and services can tap into a rapidly growing market. 

Finally, the MSMEs can benefit from increased availability of funding and support from various sources such as banks, venture capitalist and government schemes.

Role of MSMEs in the Indian Economy 

 MSMEs account for over 45% of India’s total manufacturing output and employ around 110 million people. They also contribute to the development of rural areas by providing employment opportunities and helping in the decentralization of Industries. 

 The sector accounts for 40% of India’s total exports and is critical to promoting the country’s trade relations with other countries.  They are also essential in promoting entrepreneurship and innovation in the economy.

Government initiatives for the sector 

 Funding Support: These include the Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE), the Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP), and the Micro and Small Enterprises Cluster Development Programme (MSE-CDP).

 Technology Upgradation: One such initiative is the Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS), which provides funding support for technology upgradation and modernization of the MSMEs.

 Skill Development: The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and the Skill India Mission are two initiatives aimed at providing training and skill development to the MSME workforce.

 Market Access: The National Small Industries Corporation (NSIC), which assists MSMEs with marketing, and the Public Procurement Policy for Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs), which provides a 25% reservation for MSEs in government procurement, are two examples.

Regulatory Support: These include the Udyog Aadhaar registration process, which simplifies the registration process for the MSMEs, and the MSME Facilitation Council, which provides a platform for the MSMEs to resolve their grievances related to regulatory compliance

MSMEs and Defence Manufacturing

Some of the opportunities for MSMEs in defence manufacturing include:

Offset Policy: Under the Offset Policy, foreign firms that win defence contracts in India, must invest a certain percentage of the contract value in India’s defence manufacturing sector.

Defence Procurement Procedure: It encourages the participation of the MSMEs in defence manufacturing by providing them with preference in procurement, setting aside certain categories of products for the MSMEs, and relaxing the eligibility criteria for participation in tenders.

Innovation for Defence Excellence: The iDEX initiative promotes innovation and indigenization in the defence manufacturing by providing funding support, mentorship, and incubation facilities to MSMEs and startups working in the defence sector.

Defence Investor Cell: It is a dedicated cell under the Department of Defence Production that assists and supports the MSMEs interested in making investments in defence manufacturing sector.

Defence Industrial Corridors: The MSMEs can take advantage of these clusters to access infrastructure, technology, and market linkages.

FDI Advantages for Indian MSMEs

  • Access to Capital
  • Technology Transfer
  •  Market Access
  •  Management Expertise
  • Brand Building
  •  Employment Generation

Conclusion

 In conclusion, there are several alternate finance opportunities available to the Indian MSMEs, including NBFCs, P2P lending, trade credit, angel investors and venture capitalists, crowdfunding, and government schemes. These companies should explore these options to access finance and fund their growth and expansion plans.

 7.Start-ups-Reaching last time

 Introduction  

Entrepreneurship and innovation are essential drivers of economic growth and development. India, like many other countries, has recognized the importance of promoting entrepreneurship and innovation and has taken several initiatives in this direction. 

The Start-up India initiative has three main components: simplification and handholding, funding support and incentives, and industry-academia partnership and incubation. Under the simplification and handholding component, the government has simplified the process of starting a business in India by reducing the time and cost required to start a business. The government has also launched an online portal for start-ups.

The funding support and incentives component provides various incentives for start-ups, including tax benefits, patent registration, and funding support.  The industry-academia partnership and incubation component focuses on creating a network of incubators and accelerators across the country, which can provide mentoring, networking, and funding support to start-ups.

What is a Start-up?

A start-up is an early-stage entrepreneurial venture that is typically formed to solve real-world problems. Because many start-ups address societal needs, they attract investors and funders due to their tremendous growth potential.

What is the Start-up India Scheme?

Start-up India is a flagship initiative of the government of India, intended to catalyse start-up culture and build a strong and inclusive ecosystem for innovation and entrepreneurship in India. Since the launch of the initiative on 16 January 2016, start-up India has rolled out several programs with the objective of supporting entrepreneurs and transforming India into a country of Job creators instead of Job seekers.

Impact on the Indian Economy

The Start-up India initiative has had a significant impact on the Indian economy, particularly in terms of job creation and economic growth. According to a report by the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), the Indian start-up ecosystem is expected to create over 500,000 new jobs by 2025.

The initiative has also attracted significant foreign investment, with the total funding raised by Indian start-ups increasing from $3.9 billion in 2014 to $14.5 billion in 2019. The initiative has also encouraged the growth of innovation and entrepreneurship in India.

According to the Global Innovation Index, India’s rank in innovation has improved from 81st in 2015 to 48th in 2021. The initiative has also encouraged the growth of start-ups in various sectors, including technology, healthcare, and agriculture.

Challenges and Limitations

Raising capital is a major challenge for start-ups in India. Investors are often cautious and tend to invest in established companies rather than start-ups. Start-ups in India struggle to attract and retain talent due to competition from established companies and the lack of skilled workers.

Indian start-ups must navigate a complex regulatory environment, which can be time-consuming and costly. Poor infrastructure, such as inadequate transportation and power supply, can hinder the growth of start-ups in India.

Indian society has traditionally placed a strong emphasis on job security and stability, which can make it challenging for start-ups to attract employees and customers.

While India has a large population, the purchasing power of the majority of the population is low, limiting the potential market for many start-ups.

Many start-ups in India lack access to experienced mentors who can provide guidance and support. Despite these challenges, start-ups in India have shown remarkable resilience and are finding innovative ways to overcome these obstacles.

 

8.ANTYODAYA AND MASS MEDIA

Antyodaya

  • Antyodaya was a concept that was based on the philosophy of integral humanism.
  • While it was not coined by Deen Dayal Upadhyay, the proliferation of its popularity had him playing an integral role.
  • He stressed Antyodaya to target the extreme poverty that lingered in India during and after the independence.
  • Antyodaya refers to the concept of uplifting the last person in society. 
  • The concept of Antyodaya emphasises the need for social and economic development to reach the poorest and most marginalised people in society.
  • In other words, it is a philosophy that emphasises the welfare of the weakest section of society.
  • Mass media, on the other hand, refers to the means of communication that reaches a large number of people at the same time.
  • It includes newspapers, magazines, radio, television, and the Internet.
  • The mass media plays an important role in shaping public opinion, educating the masses, and disseminating information to the masses.

Significance of Mass Media

  • The relationship between Antyodaya and mass media is quite significant.
  • The mass media can be an effective tool for promoting the concept of Antyodaya.
  • The media can create awareness about the problems faced by the poor and marginalised section of society, and highlight the need for their upliftment. 
  • The media can also bring to light the initiatives taken by the government and non-governmental organisations to promote the welfare of the poorest sections of society.
  • One of the key roles of mass media in promoting Antyodaya is to create awareness among the masses.
  • Through various media platforms, the message of Antyodaya can be communicated to a large audience. 
  • The media can highlight the need for social and economic development that benefits the poorest and most marginalised sections of society.
  • The media can also play a crucial role in educating people about the issues faced by the poor and marginalised sections of society.
  • By highlighting their problems, the media can sensitise people to their plight and encourage them to take action to support their cause.
  • It can act as a watchdog and hold those in power accountable for their actions. By exposing corruption and malpractice, the media can create pressure on the government and other organisations to take action to promote the welfare of the poorest sections of society.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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