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General Studies 2 >> Polity

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1. Introduction

Telangana, India's 28th state, was officially established on June 2, 2014, marking a significant moment in Indian history. Chief Minister K Chandrasekar Rao emphasized the democratic process and the long struggle that led to the state's formation.

2. Early Struggles for Separation (1955-1972)

  • The seeds of the Telangana statehood movement were sown as early as 1955 when the States Reorganisation Commission proposed keeping Hyderabad as a separate state, a suggestion that was ultimately ignored.
  • Telangana was merged with Andhra Pradesh on November 1, 1956, creating a united state for Telugu-speaking people.
  • However, political leaders from Telangana accused Andhra Pradesh of neglecting their region, resulting in land and job disputes.

3. The 1969 and 1972 Protests

  • In 1969, Telangana witnessed a violent protest for a separate state, led by various social groups, student unions, and government employees.
  • This movement prompted Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to formulate a six-point formula to address the region's development and employment concerns.

4. Political Support and Formation of TRS (1997-2001)

  • The demand for a separate Telangana state gained political momentum when the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) backed it in 1997.
  • In 2001, K Chandrasekara Rao founded the Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), further advancing the cause.
  • Additionally, the formation of states like Uttarakhand, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh inspired Telangana's demand for statehood.

5. KCR's Fast-Unto-Death (2009)

  • During the 2004 Lok Sabha polls, Congress President Sonia Gandhi pledged to honour the sentiments of those demanding a separate Telangana state.
  • The movement intensified in 2009 when K Chandrasekara Rao began a fast-unto-death in Karimnagar.
  • This prompted the UPA government to announce the formation of Telangana on December 9, 2009, only to backtrack two weeks later, sparking protests.

6. Justice Srikrishna Committee and CWC Resolution (2010-2013)

  • To find a permanent solution, a panel led by Justice (Retd.) B.N. Srikrishna was formed on February 3, 2010.
  • Despite extensive consultations, the panel did not favour bifurcation.
  • However, in July 2013, the Congress Working Committee (CWC) recommended Telangana's formation.
  • The Union Cabinet approved this decision based on a report from a ministerial group in December 2013.
  • The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill was introduced in Parliament and passed in 2014, leading to the official formation of Telangana. Hyderabad was envisioned as the common capital during the transition.
Image Source: Hyderabad News

7. Significance of Telangana Formation

  • The establishment of Telangana on June 2, 2014, signifies the triumphant culmination of the Telangana Movement, which spanned over 57 years.
  • This movement not only granted a distinct identity to the people of Telangana but also reshaped India's map by redefining state boundaries.

8. Conclusion

  • Telangana Formation Day is a day to celebrate the culture, heritage, and achievements of the Telangana people.
  • It is also a day to reflect on the sacrifices made by the Telangana martyrs and to reaffirm the commitment to building a better future for Telangana.
For Prelims: States Reorganisation Commission, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Justice Srikrishna Committee, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Bill
For Mains: 
1. Explain the role of Hyderabad as the common capital during the transition period after Telangana's formation. What challenges and opportunities did this arrangement present for both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh? (250 Words)
Previous Year Questions
1. With reference to Madanapalle of Andhra Pradesh, which one of the following statements is correct? (UPSC 2021)
A. Pingali Venkayya designed the tricolour Indian Nation Flag here.
B. Pattabhi Sitaramaiah led the Quit India Movement of Andhra region from here. C. Rabindranath Tagore Translated the National Anthem from Bengali to English here.
D. Madame Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott set up headquartes of Theosophical Society first here.
Answer: C
2. Match the following: (TS Panchayat Secretary 2018)
A. Submission of Srikrishna Committee Report              i. 31st December, 2010
B. Appointment of Antony Committee                             ii. 6th August, 2013
C. Appointment of Sushil Kumar Shinde Committee      iii. 8th October, 2013
D. AP State's Reorganisation Bill was introduced
in the Lok Sabha                                                               iv. 13th February, 2014
A.   A-i, B-ii, C-iii, D-iv
B. A-iii, B-i, C-iv, D-ii
C. A-ii, B-iv, C-i, D-iii
D. A-iv, B-iii, C-ii, D-i
Answer: A
3. Under which Section of the AP Reorganization Act, did the Central Government provide special financial support for the creation of essential facilities? ( APPSC Panchayat Secretary 2018)
A. Section 6         B. Section 9      C.  Section 48         D.  Section 94
Answer: D

4. The power of the Supreme Court of India to decide disputes between the Centre and the States falls under its (UPSC 2014)

A. advisory jurisdiction
B. appellate jurisdiction
C. original jurisdiction
D. writ jurisdiction

Answer: C

Source: Financial Express

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