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General Studies 2 >> Governance

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1. Context 
The Union Cabinet has approved the Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN), a significant tribal welfare scheme announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The scheme, with an outlay of Rs 24,104 crore, is one of the largest Central schemes targeting the tribal community. This move follows the recent announcement of habitat rights for the Baiga Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) in Chhattisgarh.
2. About PM-JANMAN
The Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN) is a flagship tribal welfare scheme of the Government of India. It was announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on August 9, 2023. The scheme aims to provide comprehensive and integrated development to the tribal communities in India.

The key features of the PM-JANMAN scheme 

  • The scheme has a total outlay of Rs 24,104 crore, which is one of the largest Central schemes targeting the tribal community.
  • The scheme will be implemented over 10 years, from 2022-23 to 2032-33.
  • The scheme will focus on the development of 75 PVTGs, which are the most marginalized tribal communities in India.
  • The scheme will adopt an integrated approach to development, covering all aspects of tribal life, including education, health, livelihood, and social security.

The objectives of the PM-JANMAN scheme are to

  • Improve the quality of life of tribal communities
  • Reduce poverty and inequality among tribal communities
  • Promote inclusive growth and development of tribal communities

The initiatives that will be taken under the PM-JANMAN scheme

  • The scheme will focus on increasing access to quality education for tribal children. This will be done through the construction of new schools, providing scholarships, and training teachers.
  • The scheme will focus on improving the health status of tribal communities. This will be done through the construction of new health facilities, providing free medicines, and training of health workers.
  • The scheme will focus on providing sustainable livelihoods to tribal communities. This will be done through the promotion of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, and other traditional occupations.
  • The scheme will focus on providing social security to tribal communities. This will be done through the provision of pensions, housing, and other assistance.
  • The scheme will focus on promoting tribal culture and heritage. It will support tribal art, music, dance, and other cultural activities and focus on empowering tribal women and children.


3. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) are a sub-classification of Scheduled Tribes (STs) in India. They are considered to be the most vulnerable among the STs due to their low levels of literacy, education, and economic development. PVTGs are also often isolated from mainstream society and live in remote and inaccessible areas.

Criteria for PVTG identification

The Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA) has identified 75 PVTGs in 18 states and one Union Territory (UT). The criteria for identifying PVTGs are as follows:

  • Pre-agricultural level of technology
  • Stagnant or declining population
  • Extremely low level of literacy
  • Subsistence level of economy
  • Isolated habitat and difficult means of communication
Odisha has the highest number of PVTGs in India, with 13 PVTGs. The other states with a large number of PVTGs are Madhya Pradesh (12), Andhra Pradesh (11), and Maharashtra (8).

Schedule Tribes (STs)

Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially recognized indigenous groups in India. They are recognized based on their distinct customs, traditions, languages, and culture. STs are considered to be socially, economically, and educationally backward.

Comparison of PVTGs and STs

Feature PVTGs STs
Vulnerability More vulnerable Less vulnerable
Literacy Extremely low Low
Education Extremely low level Low level
Economic development Subsistence level Varying levels
Isolation More isolated Less isolated
Habitat Remote and inaccessible Varying


4. What are Habitat Rights?

  • Habitat rights acknowledgement entails granting communities control over their customary territory, socio-cultural practices, economic means, and protection of biodiversity and ecology.
  • These rights, under the Forest Rights Act (FRA) of 2006, provide a legal framework to safeguard and promote traditional livelihood and ecological knowledge among Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).
  • The Forest Rights Act, specifically section 3(1) (e), addresses the rights of primitive tribal groups and pre-agricultural communities.
  • According to Section 2(h) of FRA, habitat includes areas within reserved and protected forests, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the territory under protection.
  • Habitat rights empower PVTGs to protect their land from potentially harmful developmental activities.
  • While not absolute ownership, these rights necessitate consent and consultation with the gram sabha for any development, providing an additional layer of legal protection.
  • The government, in collaboration with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), follows a detailed guideline, primarily from 2014 by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA), to ascertain what constitutes a habitat.
  • Coordination between state-level departments - Forest, Revenue, Tribal, and Panchayati Raj - ensures a comprehensive understanding of tribal culture, traditions, and occupation.

5. Kamar Tribes

  • The Kamar tribe is a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG) that is indigenous to the Indian state of Chhattisgarh.
  • They primarily reside in the districts of Gariaband, Dhamtari, Mahasamund, and Kanker.
  • The Kamar people are believed to be descendants of the ancient Kamar kingdom, which ruled over the region from the 10th to the 14th centuries.
  • The Kamar people are traditionally farmers and forest dwellers. They speak the Kamar language, which belongs to the Dravidian language family.
  • The Kamar people have a rich culture and heritage, which is reflected in their music, dance, and art.
  • The consultation for granting habitat rights to PVTGs in Chhattisgarh began in December 2021, with the Kamar tribes as a pilot project.
  • The procedure is recognized as long and tedious, yet crucial for understanding the reserved and introverted nature of PVTG communities.
  • Out of the 26,622 Kamar tribe population, 22 Para/Tola (hamlets) in the Magarlod sub-region of Dhamtari district have received habitat rights, marking progress in recognizing and preserving tribal territories.
For Prelims: Social empowerment, Pradhan Mantri Janjati Adivasi Nyaya Maha Abhiyan (PM-JANMAN), habitat rights, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups, Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Scheduled Tribes, Forest Rights Act (FRA) of 2006, United Nations Development Program, Kamar tribe
For Mains:
1. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Comment (250 Words)


Previous Year Questions

1. Consider the following statements about Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India:  (UPSC 2019)
1. PVTGs reside in 18 States and one Union Territory.
2. A stagnant or declining population is one of the criteria for determining PVTG status.
3. There are 95 PVTGs officially notified in the country so far.
4. Irular and Konda Reddi tribes are included in the list of PVTGs.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
A. 1, 2 and 3             B.  2, 3 and 4               C. 1, 2 and 4               D. 1, 3 and 4

2. With reference to the history of India, "Ulgulan" or the Great Tumult is the description of which of the following events? (UPSC 2020)

A. The Revolt of 1857
B. The Mappila Rebellion of 1921
C. The Indigo Revolt of 1859 - 60
D. Birsa Munda's Revolt of 1899 - 1900
3. When did the Tana’ Bhagat Movement start?  (Jharkhand Civil Service 2015) 
A. April 1912             B. April 1913     C.  April 1914          D.  April 1915
4. Consider the following statements about the Santhal Hool of 1855 - 56: (UPSC CAPF)
1. The Santhals were in a desperate situation as tribal lands were leased out
2. The Santhal rebels were treated very leniently by British officials
3. Santhal inhabited areas were eventually constituted separate administrative units called Santhal parganas
4. The Santhal rebellion was the only major rebellion in mid-19th century India.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
A. 1 only         B. 2 and 3    C. 1, 3 and 4     D. 1 and 3 only
5. After the Santhal Uprising subsided, what was/were the measure/measures taken by the colonial government? (UPSC 2018)
1. The territories called 'Santhal Paraganas' were created.
2. It became illegal for a Santhal to transfer land to a non-Santhal.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A. 1 only          B.  2 only             C. Both 1 and 2         D. Neither 1 nor 2
6. The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was formed by insertion of Article ______ in the Constitution of India. (SSC CGL 2020) 
A. 328B         B.  338A            C. 338B            D. 328A
7. Which of the following statements related to tribes in India are correct? (UPSC CAPF 2017)
1. Tharu tribes are found in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand
2. Irula, Chenchu and Sumali tribes are found in Kerala
3. Garasia tribes are found in Goa
4. Gaddi tribes are nomadic herders of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
A. 1 and 4 only    B. 2 and 3 only   C. 1, 2 and 4 only   D.  1, 2, 3 and 4
8. Comprehension
Nagaland, one of India's smallest states, is located in the north-east. It is bounded by Myanmar on the east, Arunachal Pradesh on the north, Assam on the west and Manipur on the south. Nagaland is mostly mountainous except the part bordering the Assam valley. Mount Saramati is the highest peak and forms a natural barrier between Nagaland and Myanmar. The Nagas, inhabitants of Nagaland, form more than twenty tribes. Konyak is the largest of the Naga tribes. Traditionally, the Nagas wear colourful tribal outfits with bamboo shields and decorated spears. They are simple at heart, are known for their festive spirit and burst into dance and music on such occasions as festivals, marriages and harvest. Folk songs and ballads popular among the Nagas uphold such values as bravery, love, generosity, etc. Dances are mostly woven around war themes and are performed with amazing mock war emotions. Bamboo dance is a well-known dance of the Nagas. Colourfully dressed young girls performing the bamboo dance at an incredible speed and with great accuracy present a fascinating sight. The Nagas celebrate their festivals with great enthusiasm. Almost every Naga tribe has its own festival. Sankarni is the major festival of the Zemis tribe. This religious festival coincides with Shivratri. Sekrenyi is a festival celebrated by the Angamis tribe to ensure the health and well-being of the community. Moatsu is the most important festival celebrated by the Aos tribe after the sowing is over. Feasting and merry-making invariably accompany festivals. Wood-carving is a famous Naga craft. The Konyaks, the best wood-carvers among all the Naga tribes, are skilled in carving human and animal figures. Weaving is a traditional Naga art in which each tribe has its own special designs and colours. Shawls, shoulder bags, and intricately woven mats and baskets make magnificent souvenirs for the tourists.
The largest Naga tribe is  (Odisha Police SI 2022)
A. Konyak.
B. Zemis.
C. Aos
D. Angami
9. Which of the following tribes belongs to Nagaland?  (NTPC  2021)
A. Bonda
B. Limboo
C. Rengma
D. Pnar
10. Consider the formation of the following States and arrange these in chronological order:  (UPPSC Combined State Exam 2021)
1. Goa
2. Telangana
3. Jharkhand
4. Haryana
Select the correct answer from the codes given below.
A. 1, 2, 3, 4       B. 4, 1, 3, 2       C. 3, 2, 4, 1          D. 4, 3, 1, 2
11. Consider the following States: (UPSC 2019)
1. Chhattisgarh
2. Madhya Pradesh
3. Maharashtra
4. Odisha
With reference to the State mentioned above, in terms of the percentage of forest cover to the total area of the State, which one of the following is the correct ascending order?
A. 2-3-1-4        B. 2-3-4-1         C. 3-2-4-1                D. 3-2-1-4

12. At the national level, which ministry is the nodal agency to ensure effective implementation of the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006? (UPSC 2021)

(a) Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
(b) Ministry of Panchayati Raj
(c) Ministry of Rural Development
(d) Ministry of Tribal Affairs

13. Consider the following statements: (UPSC 2019)
1. As per recent amendment to the Indian Forest Act, 1927, forest dwellers have the right to fell the bamboos grown on forest areas.
2. As per the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, bamboo is a minor forest produce.
3. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 allows ownership of minor forest produce to forest dwellers.
Which of the statement given above is/are correct?
A. 1 and 2 only         B. 2 and 3 only         C. 3 only             D. 1, 2 and 3
14. The Indian Forest Act 1927 was enacted after repealing which of the following Indian forest acts? (SSC CGL 2021)
A. Indian Forest Act, 1922
B. Indian Forest Act, 1878
C. Indian Forest Act, 1865
D. Indian Forest Act, 1882
15. In which year Forest Conservation Act was passed? (UPTET 2019)
A.  1986     B. 1990           C. 1980         D. 1988
16. In which tribe traditionally their livelihood is based on ‘Bamboo: (CGPSC Civil Service 2019)
A. Binjhwar        B. Kanwar        C. Kamar         D. Sawara

17. Consider the following pairs: (UPSC 2013)

  Tribe State
1. Limboo (Limbu) Sikkim
2. Karbi Himachal Pradesh
3. Dongaria Kondh Odisha
4. Bonda Tamil Nadu

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 3 only  (b) 2 and 4 only    (c) 1, 3 and 4 only        (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answers: 1-C, 2-D, 3-C, 4-D, 5-C, 6-B, 7-C, 8-A, 9-C, 10-B, 11-C, 12-D, 13-B, 14-B, 15-C, 16-C 17-A

Source: The Indian Express

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