BHARAT STAGE EMISSION STANDARDS (BS NORMS)
- Bharat Stage Emission Standards (BSES) are a series of emission standards established by the Central Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engine engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles (MCVs), three-wheelers (3Ws) and four-wheel drive (4WD) vehicles.
- The standards are based on the European emission standards and are designed to reduce vehicular emissions of particulate matter (PM), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2).
- The first BSES norms were introduced in 2000 and have been progressively tightened since then. The current BSES norms, BSVI, were introduced in 2020 and are equivalent to the Euro 6/VI norms.
- The implementation of Bharat Stage standards aims to reduce vehicular pollution and improve air quality.
- These standards become increasingly stringent with each successive stage, requiring vehicles to adopt better emission control technologies. For instance, a move from BS-IV to BS-VI involved a significant reduction in the permissible levels of pollutants, particularly in the case of diesel vehicles.
- The adoption of Bharat Stage emission standards impacts the automotive industry, requiring manufacturers to upgrade engines and exhaust systems to comply with the new regulations. It's a step toward aligning India's vehicular emission norms with global standards to mitigate environmental pollution and improve public health
3. Euro V and Euro VI norms
Euro V and Euro VI are two sets of emission standards for road vehicles in the European Union (EU). They are designed to reduce air pollution from vehicles by setting limits on the amount of pollutants that vehicles can emit.
Euro V was introduced in 2009 and applied to all new passenger cars, light commercial vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles sold in the EU. It tightened the emission limits for nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and hydrocarbons (HC) compared to the previous Euro IV standards. Euro V also introduced stricter limits for carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for certain vehicle categories.
Euro VI is the current set of emission standards for road vehicles in the EU. It was introduced in 2014 and applies to all new passenger cars, light commercial vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles sold in the EU. Euro VI further tightened the emission limits for NOx, PM, and HC compared to Euro V. It also introduced new limits for black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN).
Key differences between Euro V and Euro VI
The main differences between Euro V and Euro VI are:
- NOx limits: Euro VI limits NOx emissions to 0.08 g/km for gasoline vehicles and 0.4 g/kWh for diesel vehicles, compared to 0.25 g/km for gasoline vehicles and 0.18 g/kWh for diesel vehicles under Euro V.
- PM limits: Euro VI limits PM emissions to 0.0045 g/km for gasoline vehicles and 0.005 g/km for diesel vehicles, compared to 0.005 g/km for both gasoline and diesel vehicles under Euro V.
- HC limits: Euro VI limits HC emissions to 0.075 g/km for gasoline vehicles and 0.10 g/km for diesel vehicles, compared to 0.07 g/km for gasoline vehicles and 0.15 g/km for diesel vehicles under Euro V.
- Real-world driving emissions (RDE) testing: Euro VI introduced RDE testing, which measures emissions from vehicles in real-world driving conditions. This is in addition to the laboratory testing that was used under Euro V.
Impacts of Euro V and Euro VI
Euro V and Euro VI have had a significant impact on air quality in the EU. They have helped to reduce emissions of NOx, PM, and HC from road vehicles, which has improved air quality and reduced the health impacts of air pollution.
Future of Euro VI
The European Commission is currently considering the next generation of emission standards for road vehicles, which are likely to be even stricter than Euro VI. These standards are expected to focus on reducing emissions of NOx, PM, and HC, as well as introducing new limits for other pollutants such as ammonia (NH3)
4. Difference between BS-IV and the new BS-VI
|Less stringent compared to BS-VI
|Stricter limits on pollutants (NOx, PM, CO, HC)
|Sulfur Content in Fuel
|Higher (50 ppm for both petrol & diesel)
|Lower (10 ppm for petrol, 10 ppm for diesel)
|Emission Control Tech
|Basic emission control technology
|Advanced systems like SCR, DPF
|Impact on Vehicles
|Required vehicle engine & exhaust upgrades
|Introduced newer, more efficient models
|More sophisticated monitoring systems
|Moderate reduction in emissions
|Significant reduction in vehicular emissions, improving air quality
5.Significance of the Bharat Standard Norms
- These norms are crucial for reducing vehicular emissions of harmful pollutants like nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC). By setting stricter limits with each successive stage, these standards aim to improve air quality and reduce the impact of vehicular pollution on the environment and public health.
- The Bharat Stage norms align India's vehicular emission standards with global benchmarks like Euro norms. This alignment is crucial for international cooperation, facilitating technology transfer, and ensuring that vehicles manufactured in India meet global environmental standards
- The implementation of these norms drives innovation and technological advancements in the automotive industry. Manufacturers need to continually improve engine technology, exhaust systems, and emission control mechanisms to comply with these stringent standards
- Reduced vehicular emissions result in cleaner air, which has a direct positive impact on public health. Lower levels of pollutants contribute to a decrease in respiratory illnesses, cardiovascular diseases, and other health issues associated with poor air quality
- The establishment and enforcement of these standards signify a commitment from the government to address environmental concerns. It involves setting policies and regulations that encourage cleaner fuel usage, adoption of advanced technologies, and compliance from automotive manufacturers
- These standards pave the way for a more sustainable transportation sector by promoting the use of cleaner fuels, encouraging the development of eco-friendly vehicles, and contributing to overall environmental sustainability
Previous Year Questions
1. Regarding Bharat Stage (BS-VI) vehicular emissions norms, choose the correct statements : (UGC NET 2020)
A. BS (VI) emission norms are equivalent to Euro (VI) norms.
B. BS (VI) norms require the up-gradation of engine and emission control technology
C. BS(VI) norms are applicable to all categories of the vehicles including two, three and four- wheelers.
D. BS (VI) norms do not require any change in fuel quality
Choose the correct answer from the options given below
a)A, B, C, only
b)B, C, D only
c)A, C, D only
d)A, B, C, D - All