Mains Practice Question


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Investments in energy transition, digital public infrastructure, and female empowerment are propelling the country towards a greener, more sustainable future. Discuss.


A Simple Introduction about energy transition

The energy transition refers to the global shift from traditional, fossil fuel-based energy sources to cleaner, more sustainable alternatives. This transformation is driven by a combination of environmental, economic, and technological factors, with the primary goal of mitigating climate change and reducing dependence on finite resources.


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India's Progress in Renewable Energy

India has made remarkable strides in its energy transition journey, with renewable energy sources accounting for 42% of its total power generation capacity. As the world's fourth-largest renewables market, India boasts 3% of the global solar manufacturing capacity. The country invests approximately $10 billion annually in renewables, positioning it among the top five emerging and middle-income economies with substantial public investment in renewable energy. Additionally, India has incentivized the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) and the production of renewable hydrogen.

Digital Transformation for Inclusivity

India's digital public infrastructure (DPI) initiative has revolutionized inclusivity by leveraging technology. Through digitally verifiable identity proofs, millions can access social safety net payments, banking services, and government assistance without enduring long queues or paperwork hassles. Digital payments have also streamlined maternal health conditional cash transfers, reducing delays by 43%. Despite challenges in affordable access, digital innovation is transforming rural communities, enabling online health consultations, remote learning, e-commerce, and fintech solutions.

Addressing Gender Disparities

While India faces challenges in female labor force participation, efforts to provide safe urban housing and enhance access to finance have bolstered female representation in the industrial workforce to 43% of the national total. Initiatives like the National Rural Livelihoods Mission, supported by the World Bank, have empowered millions of rural women through self-help organizations. Over $4 billion in commercial credit has been allocated to promote women-led cooperatives and rural enterprises.


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India's progress across these diverse areas serves as a testament to its commitment towards a sustainable, inclusive, and equitable future for all its citizens.  By addressing climate change, promoting digital equality, and empowering women, India is charting a course for a brighter future.


Other Points to Consider 

What is DPI?

Women participation in workforce

Renewable energy



Previous Year Questions

1. Elucidate the relationship between globalization and new technology in a world of scarce resources, with special reference to India. (2022)

2. How have digital initiatives in India contributed to the functioning of the education system in the country? Elaborate your answer. (2020)


22-May 2024